The toque macaque is active during the day and is equally at home in the trees and on the ground (2). It feeds on a wide range of fruit, leaves, crops and insects (2), and food is stuffed into the cheek pouches with both hands to be chewed later (6).
Macaques live in large groups of eight – 43 (average 20 – 25) with several adult males and females (3). Females tend to remain in the group they were born into, but males tend to disperse into new groups when they reach maturity (2) (5). Within groups, there is a strict dominance hierarchy; lower ranking individuals are ousted from good foraging areas and are less likely to survive to reproductive age than high-ranking individuals (5).
Breeding tends to take place in autumn, and females give birth to a single offspring after a gestation period of around five months (5) (2). The newborn young has a soft black natal coat in the first two months of life (2).