Restricted to just one small area of the Itatiaia Mountains in south-eastern Brazil (1) (2) (3), the Itatiaia highland frog has not been recorded in the wild for many years, and may already have become extinct (1). A small frog with a fairly robust build, it has an oval body, a large, wide head, rounded snout, and short limbs with short, unwebbed digits that end in narrow discs. The eyes are large and directed forwards, with diamond-shaped pupils (2) (4). The body is light olive-brown above, with irregular dark patches, and uniformly cream beneath, while the tips of the digits are bright yellow (2) (5), helping to distinguish this species from its relative Holoaden luederwaldti, which is larger and more uniformly brownish-black (2). Like all members of the genus, the Itatiaia highland frog has very glandular skin and large parotoid glands (2) (4). As in Holoaden luederwaldti, the female may potentially be larger than the male (6).
- Snout-vent length: up to 3.7 cm (2)