Wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa)

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Wood anemone in flower
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Wood anemone fact file

Wood anemone description

KingdomPlantae
PhylumAnthophyta
ClassMagnoliopsida
OrderRanunculales
FamilyRanunculaceae
GenusAnemone

Wood anemone is an attractive plant that often indicates the site of old woodland. Each stem has a single, white, star-shaped flower, often flushed with pink or purple. Halfway up the hairless flower stem grows a whorl of stalked, palm-shaped leaves and leave stems grow from the root.

Size
Size: 5 – 30 cm
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Wood anemone biology

Wood anemones are one of the first spring flowers, their cheerful white stars appearing in March and April. They are perennials and, as their seed is rarely viable in Britain, they spread by means of underground roots. However, they do not advance their carpet quickly, and colonies of anemones can often be found in the same spot within a wood, century after century. Bradfield Wood in Suffolk has large carpets of wood anemones, and the fact that these woods have a history of traditional management reaching back to the 12th century illustrates the plant’s long association with ancient woodland.

However, the appearance of wood anemones in parts of the uplands long-since denuded of their woodland suggests that the plant may have once been more widespread and not confined to woods. There are colonies in the Yorkshire Dales and on the limestone hills of Derbyshire. This apparent liking for light may explain its early – and short – flowering season. Once the trees in a wood have rebuilt their spring canopy of leaves, the plant’s flowers wither and fall.

Some of the best colonies of wood anemones are in Wayland Wood in Norfolk, the site of the ‘Babes in the Wood’ story. These plants have purple streaked and even wholly purple petals to their flowers and records suggest that there was also once a rare blue-flowered variety.

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Wood anemone range

Wood anemones are found throughout the UK and in Western Europe.

You can view distribution information for this species at the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
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Wood anemone habitat

The plant is found in dry deciduous woods, along old hedgebanks and in upland meadows.

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Wood anemone status

Common

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Wood anemone threats

Apart from the loss of much of their habitat, wood anemones are not considered particularly threatened.

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Wood anemone conservation

Woodland management that follows the traditional practice of coppicing, leaving open areas within the wood, is usually beneficial to a wide variety of flowering plants. Wood anemone is only one of a number of flowers that can often be found in an ancient woodland. Most conservation projects for managing woodland will improve the wood anemones’ chances of being enjoyed for many generations to come.

There may be further information about this species available via the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
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Authentication

Information supplied by English Nature.

http://www.english-nature.org.uk

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Glossary

Coppicing
Traditional form of woodland management in which trees are cut close to the base of the trunk. Re-growth occurs in the form of many thin poles. Woodlands are cut in this way on rotation, producing a mosaic of different stages of re-growth.
Perennials
Plants that live for at least three seasons; after an initial period they produce flowers once a year.
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References

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Image credit

Wood anemone in flower  
Wood anemone in flower

© Dominique Delfino / Biosphoto

Biosphoto
16 rue Velouterie
Avignon
84000
France
Tel: +33 (490) 162 042
Fax: +33 (663) 208 434
http://www.biosphoto.com/

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