White-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar)

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Adult white-handed gibbon sitting on branch with infant on lap
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White-handed gibbon fact file

White-handed gibbon description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderPrimates
FamilyHylobatidae
GenusHylobates (1)

A beautiful and captivating primate, the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) is a master of agility (5). As true brachiators, gibbons are much admired for their remarkably fast, yet seemingly effortless, suspensory motion through the trees (6). The white-handed gibbon possesses the long arms and hands typical of gibbon species, which are perfectly suited to this pendulous swinging from branch to branch. Despite lacking a tail, the gibbon’s sense of balance is nevertheless acute, and it can even be found walking on its hind legs along branches high above the ground, characteristically raising its arms above its head for balance (5). Individuals vary in colour from dark brown or black to red-buff and pale fawn, but always with a white fringe framing the black face and white upper sides of the hands and feet (7) (8). Males and females are very similar in size and can have all colour variants (7). Its unmistakable call, a loud whooping sound, is enhanced by a sound-amplifying throat sac and can be heard from a great distance (5) (7).

Also known as
lar gibbon.
French
Gibbon À Mains Blanches, Gibbon Lar.
Spanish
Gibón De Manos Blancas.
Size
Head-body length: 45-50 cm (2)
Male weight: c. 5.7 kg (3)
Female weight: c.5.3 kg (3)
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White-handed gibbon biology

The white-handed gibbon was considered to make life-long pair bonds, but recent studies show some serial monogamy with occasional partner changes, and even non-monogamous groupings (10). Generally, however, groups consist of a mated pair and their offspring. An elaborate duet sung between males and females is thought to maintain pair bonds as well as to mark and defend the pair’s territory. These gibbons breed year round, usually producing one young every two to three years (2) (8). The gestation period lasts seven to eight months and young are weaned at 18 months (10). Juveniles reach adult size at six years but remain with their natal group until they reach sexual maturity at around nine years old (8) (10). Parental care is predominantly given by the mother but the father and elder siblings also help raise young (8). Lifespan in the wild lasts 25 to 30 years (10).

These gibbons are active during the day, which is mostly spent foraging for food and feeding (10). Primarily frugivorous, the white-handed gibbon will also eat immature leaves, flowers, stems, shoots, buds, insects, eggs and the occasional bird (2) (9).

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White-handed gibbon range

The white-handed gibbon is found in the tropical rainforests of southern and Southeast Asia (8), in the countries of China, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia (9). The Malaysian lar (Hylobates lar lar) is found in Malaysia and southern Thailand, the central lar (H. l. entelloides) in southern Myanmar and southern Thailand, Carpenter’s lar (H. l. carpenteri) in eastern Myanmar, north-western Thailand and Laos, the Yunnan lar (H. l. yunnanensis) in the Yunnan province of southern China and the Sumatran lar (H. l. vestitus) in Indonesia (northern Sumatra) (1) (2).

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White-handed gibbon habitat

This arboreal species inhabits primary or secondary semi-deciduous monsoon forests and tropical evergreen forests (9). The white-handed gibbon occupies only the upper canopy, and this gibbon rarely, if ever, descends to the forest floor (8).

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White-handed gibbon status

The white-handed gibbon is classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List (1), and listed on Appendix I of CITES (4). Subspecies: Malaysian lar (Hylobates lar lar), Carpenter’s lar (H. l. carpenteri) and Sumatran lar (H. l. vestitus) are all classified as Endangered (EN), the central lar (H. l. entelloides) is classified as Vulnerable (VU) and the Yunnan lar (H. l. yunnanensis) is classified as Data Deficient (DD) on the IUCN Red List (1).

IUCN Red List species status – Endangered

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White-handed gibbon threats

Rapid loss of habitat poses the principle threat to gibbons, placing their future in great peril (3) (8). With breathtaking speed the forests of Southeast Asia are being cut down due to logging and agriculture, leaving forest inhabitants an ever smaller region in which to live. The white-handed gibbon is sometimes hunted for its meat (8) and the capture of young gibbons for the pet trade is rampant in some countries, particularly Thailand (5). Frequently the mother is shot so that the young can be taken (5).

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White-handed gibbon conservation

The white-handed gibbon is protected from international trade by its listing on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) (4). Other efforts are being made to save these primates, such as national parks and reserves, but they are not terribly effective as they are often poorly supervised and laws against capture un-enforced (8). The highest priority in protecting this primate must be given to preserving adequate areas of suitable habitat (3). Action is required now if we are to prevent this agile and intelligent lesser ape from becoming more critically endangered.

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
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Find out more

For further information on the white-handed gibbon:

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Authentication

Authenticated (07/11/2005) by Matt Richardson, independent primatologist and writer.

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Glossary

Arboreal
Living in trees.
Brachiation
In some primates, a method of locomotion in which the animal swings hand over hand from branch to branch.
Frugivorous
Fruit eating.
Gestation
The state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth.
Serial monogamy
A form of monogamy in which individuals have only one mating partner at any one time, but may have more than one mating partner in their life time.
Subspecies
A population usually restricted to a geographical area that differs from other populations of the same species, but not to the extent of being classified as a separate species.
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References

  1. IUCN Red List (June, 2009)
    http://www.iucnredlist.org
  2. Richardson, M. (2005) Pers. comm.
  3. Macdonald, D. (2001) The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  4. CITES (October, 2005)
    http://www.cites.org
  5. Ecology Asia (October, 2005)
    http://www.ecologyasia.com/index.htm
  6. Canadian Museum of Nature – Nature.Ca (October, 2005)
    http://www.nature.ca/notebooks/english/gibbon.htm
  7. Utah’s Hogle Zoo (October, 2005)
    http://hoglezoo.org/index.php
  8. Animal Diversity Web (October, 2005)
    http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html
  9. The Primata (October, 2005)
    http://www.theprimata.com/factsheets.html
  10. Burnie, D. (2001) Animal – The Definitive Visual Guide to the World’s Wildlife. Dorling Kindersley Limited, London.
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Image credit

Adult white-handed gibbon sitting on branch with infant on lap  
Adult white-handed gibbon sitting on branch with infant on lap

© Anup Shah / naturepl.com

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