White-faced whistling-duck (Dendrocygna viduata)

loading
Front profile of white-faced whistling-duck
loading
Loading more images and videos...

White-faced whistling-duck fact file

White-faced whistling-duck description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
ClassAves
OrderAnseriformes
FamilyAnatidae
GenusDendrocygna (1)

The white-faced whistling-duck (Dendrocygna viduata) is a long-legged duck with a conspicuous white face and neck patch that sits in sharp contrast to its otherwise black and brown plumage (3) (4). The rest of the head and neck is black along with the wings, rump and tail, and the breast is a rich chestnut colour. The sides of the body are lightly barred black and white, and the bill and legs are slaty grey (5). The male and female white-faced whistling-duck are similar in appearance, although the female is typically less bold in colour, but the juvenile has a greyish, white or ash-grey face, throat and underparts, and the chestnut on the breast is less extensively and duller (2). The whistling ducks are so named for their high-pitched whistling calls, but are also known as tree ducks due to their habit of perching on branches. These birds have broad wings, and so are highly manoeuvrable in flight, although not particularly fast (4).

Also known as
whistling-duck, whitefaced duck, white-faced duck, white-faced tree duck, white-faced tree-duck, white-faced whistling duck.
French
Dendrocygne veuf.
Size
Length: 38 - 48 cm (2)
Weight
502 - 820 g (2)
Top

White-faced whistling-duck biology

Active mainly at night, during the day the gregarious white-faced whistling-duck spends most of the time standing alert in flocks around water or in marshy areas. When alarmed, it may freeze and stand tall in a distinctive erect posture while watching intently, or may sharply spring into the air before fleeing (8). At night, the birds fly to foraging areas to feed on a varied diet that includes grass, seeds and aquatic molluscs, by wading, swimming or diving (2) (7) (8) (9). In response to seasonal fluctuations in food and water availability, the white-faced whistling-duck may undertake short migrations that see it travel as far as 500 kilometres in search of favourable foraging grounds (1) (2)

Breeding starts at the beginning of the local rainy season, when the white-faced whistling-duck may nest in solitary pairs, small groups, or loose colonies (7). The nest is a simple depression in the ground amongst long grass or reedbeds that is placed over, or just a short distance from water (2) (7) (9). In South America, this bird may also nest in open crevices in trees (7). A clutch of 4 to 13 eggs is laid and then incubated for some 26 to 28 days before the chicks fledge 8 weeks after hatching (2). After the breeding season, the adult birds undergo a flightless moult period that lasts for 18 to 25 days. During this time, they are particularly vulnerable to predation and so seek cover in densely vegetated wetlands. When not breeding, the white-faced whistling-duck is particularly gregarious and may forage in flocks of several thousand birds (7).

Top

White-faced whistling-duck range

The white-faced whistling-duck is found in tropical parts of Central and South America and Africa. In the Americas, it ranges from Costa Rica south to central Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina and east to Venezuela, Guyana and Surinam north of the Orinoco (2) (6). It is also an occasional visitor to some West Indian islands (3). In Africa, it occurs south of the Sahara from Senegal to Ethiopia, southwards to South Africa, Madagascar and the Comoros Islands (2).

Top

White-faced whistling-duck habitat

The white-faced whistling-duck occupies a variety of freshwater habitats, including lakes, swamps, large rivers and flood-plains and some artificial habitats, such as rice fields and sewage farms. It prefers wetlands in open county with mud or sandbars and a rich variety of emergent vegetation for nesting (2) (7).

Top

White-faced whistling-duck status

The white-faced whistling-duck is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1).

IUCN Red List species status – Least Concern

Top

White-faced whistling-duck threats

With a very wide distribution, and a large population that is thought to be increasing in size, the white-faced whistling-duck is not under immediate threat of extinction. The species is, however, susceptible to avian botulism and avian influenza, and so may become threatened by future outbreaks of these diseases. In parts of its African range, the white-faced whistling-duck is hunted for local consumption and trade, such as in Malawi and Botswana, and is hunted for use in traditional medicine in Nigeria (7).

Top

White-faced whistling-duck conservation

The white-faced whistling-duck has not been the target of any known conservation measures.

ARKive is supported by OTEP, a joint programme of funding from the UK FCO and DFID which provides support to address priority environmental issues in the Overseas Territories, and Defra
Top

Find out more

For more information on the white-faced whistling-duck and other bird species, see:

Top

Authentication

This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:
arkive@wildscreen.org.uk

Top

Glossary

Avian botulism
A paralytic, often fatal, disease of birds caused by the ingestion of toxin produced by the bacterium, Clostridium botulinum.
Avian influenza
Also known as “bird flu”, a contagious disease caused by any strain of influenza virus that is carried by and primarily affects birds.
Incubate
To keep eggs warm so that development is possible.
Molluscs
A diverse group of invertebrates, mainly marine, that have one or all of the following; a horny, toothed ribbon in the mouth (the radula), a shell covering the upper surface of the body, and a mantle or mantle cavity with a type of gill. Includes snails, slugs, shellfish, octopuses and squid.
Top

References

  1. IUCN Red List (October, 2010)
    http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  2. del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J. (1992) Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
  3. Latta, S.C., Rimmer, C., Keith, A., Wiley, J., Raffaele, H., McFarland, K. and Fernández, E. (2006) Birds of the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  4. Perrins, C. (2009) The Encyclopedia of Birds. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  5. Hilty, S.L. and Brown, B. (1986) A Guide to the Birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
  6. Blake, E.R. (1977) Manual of Neotropical Birds. Volume 1: Spheniscidae (Penguins) to Laridae (Gulls and Allies). University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  7. BirdLife International (October, 2010)
    http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=352&m=0
  8. Hilty, S.L. and de Schauensee, R.M. (2003) Birds of Venezuela. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
  9. Schulenberg, T.S. (2010) White-faced Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna viduata). In: Neotropical Birds Online. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca. Available at:
    http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=64276
X
Close

Image credit

Front profile of white-faced whistling-duck  
Front profile of white-faced whistling-duck

© Nigel J. Dennis / www.photoshot.com

NHPA/Photoshot Holdings Ltd
29-31 Saffron Hill
London
EC1N 8SW
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 20 7421 6003
Fax: +44 (0) 20 7421 6006
sales@photoshot.com
http://www.photoshot.com

X
Close

Link to this photo

ARKive species - White-faced whistling-duck (Dendrocygna viduata) Embed this ARKive thumbnail link ("portlet") by copying and pasting the code below.

Terms of Use - The displayed portlet may be used as a link from your website to ARKive's online content for private, scientific, conservation or educational purposes only. It may NOT be used within Apps.

Read more about

X
Close

MyARKive

MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite ARKive images and videos and share them with friends.

Play the Team WILD game:

Team WILD, an elite squadron of science superheroes, needs your help! Your mission: protect and conserve the planet’s species and habitats from destruction.

Conservation in Action

Which species are on the road to recovery? Find out now »

Help us share the wonders of the natural world. Donate today!

Blog