Very little is known about the life of this weevil, both in the UK and Europe. The larvae live inside the galls of sawflies belonging to the genus Pontania, particularly those of Pontania pedunculi; it also uses the galls of the gall midge Iteomyia major. This weevil is what is known as an 'inquiline', a species that occupies another's home and shares its food.
Historically, this weevil was fairly widespread throughout mainland UK, but it has since become rare. It has been recorded in 2000, 2001 and 2002 from several East Anglian sites, 4 in Norfolk, 1 in Suffolk; there is also a 1990 record from Northamptonshire. Elsewhere, it is found across northern Europe and central Asia, where it is also considered rare. However, in the areas where populations occur this weevil is fairly abundant.
It is not known why this species has become so rare, or what threatens its existence. It is now thought that the weevil may not be as rare as was first feared, as they spend much of their time within galls.
Melanapion minimum is listed in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP), and included in English Nature's Species Recovery Programme. As well as maintaining the populations of this weevil at its existing sites, it is hoped that reintroductions to former sites within its historic range may also take place. For this to happen, a greater understanding of the weevil's biology and its ecological requirements is needed. There is currently a studentship at Leeds University researching this species and two other weevils, which is due to complete in 2003. Adults have already been reared from galls in the UK; this development may be a step towards captive breeding and reintroductions.
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