In groups of two to five individuals, volcano rabbits live in runways and burrows that may be as long as five metres and as much as 40 centimetres wide underground, with the entrance concealed at the base of a clump of zacaton bunch grass (4). This species is thought to be able to breed throughout the year, but with a peak during the warm, rainy summer months from March to early July (4). After a gestation period of around 40 days (4), one to two young are born per litter, although some litters may contain three young (7). The infants remain in the nest for two weeks and begin to eat solid food and move after three (4). In captivity, young have been recorded as independent at 25 to 30 days after birth (8).
Volcano rabbits are mostly crepuscular (4), although they can also be active by day, particularly when the sky is overcast (8). The diet includes the tender green leaves of grasses, the young leaves of spiny herbs, the bark of alder trees and, during the rainy season, also the oats and corn from cultivated crops (4).