Despite being found to have a larger population and to occur at more sites than previously thought (2) (4) (6), the Uluguru bush-shrike is still restricted to an extremely small area, and is believed to have a total population of no more than 1,200 pairs (2) (4) (5). Much of the terrain within its range is too steep for cultivation, but, nevertheless, the main threat to this shrike remains the extensive loss of forest habitat, due to clearance for cultivation and cutting for timber and firewood. Most of this destruction has occurred at lower elevations in the submontane forest, the preferred habitat of this species (2) (3) (4) (5) (8). A further threat, introduced to the area more recently, is banana farming, with bananas planted beneath the forest canopy as a cash crop (3) (4) (9). Unfortunately, this involves clearing shrubs and thinning the trees, as well as gradually felling further trees to provide additional nutrients for the banana plants. Eventually this process destroys the forest, with the land then usually converted to subsistence maize farming (9).