The Tristan albatross is in grave danger of becoming extinct in the foreseeable future, with numbers having decreased by 28 percent over 46 years on Gough Island, disappeared almost entirely on Inaccessible Island and already become extinct on Tristan da Cunha. The dramatic decline in numbers on Inaccessible Island is attributed to predation by feral pigs (now absent) and humans, while the extinction on Tristan was probably the result of human exploitation, in addition to predation by rats. On Gough, storms have caused peat slips that have buried and killed nesting adults, although this is likely to be only a very rare occurrence (3). The main threat comes from bycatch from longline fisheries, with satellite tracking indicating a substantial overlap between the range of these birds and areas where longline fisheries are well known for their high rates of seabird bycatch mortality (3) (9). Furthermore, if one parent is lost at sea the other cannot cope with the food demands of their chick and the chick will most probably die. Astonishing recent research has also shown that invasive, introduced house mice, three times the size of those in Europe, are also devastating seabird populations on Gough Island by preying upon chicks (3) (10). The chicks are up to 250 times the weight of the mice but are largely immobile and defenceless, the species having evolved over millions of years on an island with no natural predators (10). Approximately 1,000 Tristan albatross chicks are thought to be killed each year by these seemingly unlikely predators (10). In fact, a recent survey has shown that, in 2008 the number of Tristan albatross chicks that have gone on to fledge is five times lower than it should be.