Saturday 18 May
Travancore evening brown (Parantirrhoea marshalli)
Travancore evening brown fact file
- Find out more
- Print factsheet
Travancore evening brown description
The triangular forewings of the male of this butterfly species are fringed with long, raised scales which are dark chocolate brown and like satin in texture. The centre of the wings are dark brownish-grey with flecks of deep violet and a pale violet crescent-shaped band, crossed by three small white spots. The hind wings are tailed and the undersides of both wings are pale brown with deeper brown speckling (3). Females are less conspicuous, with cream wings, speckled slightly with brown. The white spots and purple crescents are still visible but less obvious than in the male, and the wings have darker edges. The body is pale in both sexes (1). The larva of the Travencore evening brown is roughly spindle-shaped and about five centimetres long. The pale yellow-green head is shaped like a rounded triangle and the bright green body ends in a conical tail. The body bears a pair of fluorescent yellowish stripes that run along the body from the top of the head to the tail. There are also three faint greenish-yellow longitudinal stripes on each side, aligned parallel to the top most ones (4).
- Length: 55 – 65 mm (2)
Travancore evening brown biology
This crepuscular butterfly has weak and erratic flight and spends long periods at rest (1), flying only during dull weather and drizzly days (2). It lays small clutches of tiny, spherical eggs (4). From these eggs hatch the spindle-shaped, slightly hairy larvae (1). The larva is usually observed feeding during the night time on the leaves of reed species, particularly the reed Ochlandra travancorica, which grows near forest streams (4). The larva grows more and more clumsy and when it is time for pupation it rests and stops feeding for more than a day, and wanders around for some time in search of a suitable site for pupation. It settles upside-down along the midrib of the leaf, and thus the smooth, short, stout pupa is formed on the underside of the leaf in the open. The pupation is completed in about a day. Occasionally the pupa may fall to ground where it is left to the mercy of nature for survival (4).Top
Travancore evening brown rangeTop
Travancore evening brown habitatTop
Travancore evening brown status
The Travancore evening brown is not yet classified on the IUCN Red List.Top
Travancore evening brown threats
Only a few individuals have been sighted since the Travencore evening brown was first discovered in 1870. Habitat loss is thought to be the main threat to this rare butterfly (2).
Increasing human interference through mismanagement, and aimless interventions in the name of afforestation; uncontrolled massive construction activities in reserve forests, unrestricted ecotourism and occasional forest fires, all contribute to the destruction of reed patches that are vital for the survival of the Travencore evening brown (4).Top
Travancore evening brown conservation
No specific conservation action has been targeted at this species.Top
Find out more
For further information on the Travencore evening brown see:
- The Skippers of Kerala:
Authenticated (22/10/07) by Dr Kalesh S., Kerala, India.
- The establishment of forest by natural succession or by the planting of trees on land where they did not grow formerly.
- Active at twilight and/or just before sunrise.
- A species or taxonomic group that is only found in one particular country or geographic area.
- Stage in an animal’s lifecycle after it hatches from the egg. Larvae are typically very different in appearance to adults; they are able to feed and move around but usually are unable to reproduce.
- An inactive stage in an insect’s development when reorganisation takes place to create the adult form from the larval form. In butterflies the pupa is also called a chrysalis.
- The process of becoming a pupa, the stage of an insect’s development, when huge changes occur that reorganise the larval form into the adult form. In butterflies the pupa is also called a chrysalis.
- D’Abrera, B.L. (1985) Butterflies of the Oriental region, Part II. Hill House, Australia.
- Elamon, S. (2004) Pers. comm.
- Wood-Mason, A. (1881) Parantirrhoea. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Part II, 49(4): 248 - 250.
- Kalesh, S. and Prakash, S.K. (01/01/0001 00:00:00) Early stages of the Travancore Evening Brown Parantirrhoea marshalli Wood-Mason, 1880 (Satyrinae Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera), an endemic butterfly from the southern Western Ghats, India. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society,.
More »Related species
Play the Team WILD game
MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite ARKive images and videos and share them with friends.
Terms and Conditions of Use of Materials
Copyright in this website and materials contained on this website (Material) belongs to Wildscreen or its licensors.
Visitors to this website (End Users) are entitled to:
- view the contents of, and Material on, the website;
- download and retain copies of the Material on their personal systems in digital form in low resolution for their own personal use;
- teachers, lecturers and students may incorporate the Material in their educational material (including, but not limited to, their lesson plans, presentations, worksheets and projects) in hard copy and digital format for use within a registered educational establishment, provided that the integrity of the Material is maintained and that copyright ownership and authorship is appropriately acknowledged by the End User.
End Users shall not copy or otherwise extract, alter or manipulate Material other than as permitted in these Terms and Conditions of Use of Materials.
Additional use of flagged material
Green flagged material
Certain Material on this website (Licence 4 Material) displays a green flag next to the Material and is available for not-for-profit conservation or educational use. This material may be used by End Users, who are individuals or organisations that are in our opinion not-for-profit, for their not-for-profit conservation or not-for-profit educational purposes. Low resolution, watermarked images may be copied from this website by such End Users for such purposes. If you require high resolution or non-watermarked versions of the Material, please contact Wildscreen with details of your proposed use.
Creative commons material
Certain Material on this website has been licensed to Wildscreen under a Creative Commons Licence. These images are clearly marked with the Creative Commons buttons and may be used by End Users only in the way allowed by the specific Creative Commons Licence under which they have been submitted. Please see http://creativecommons.org for details.
Any other use
Please contact the copyright owners directly (copyright and contact details are shown for each media item) to negotiate terms and conditions for any use of Material other than those expressly permitted above. Please note that many of the contributors to ARKive are commercial operators and may request a fee for such use.
Save as permitted above, no person or organisation is permitted to incorporate any copyright material from this website into any other work or publication in any format (this includes but is not limited to: websites, Apps, CDs, DVDs, intranets, extranets, signage, digital communications or on printed materials for external or other distribution). Use of the Material for promotional, administrative or for-profit purposes is not permitted.