The stump-tailed macaque has a diet largely comprised of fruit, seeds, young leaves and other vegetation, but it is also known to eat insects, bird eggs, frogs and crabs (7) (9) (11). It spends the daytime foraging for food and stores the food it collects in cheek pouches, which are a common feature of the Macaca genus. Although the stump-tailed macaque can climb trees it is typically terrestrial and far more agile on the ground (12).
The stump-tailed macaque typically lives in groups of around 20 to 50, of both sexes. Within the group there is a strong hierarchy where status is inherited from the mother, and new males entering a group must fight to acquire their position in the ranks. However, the stump-tailed macaque is a relatively peaceful species compared with other macaques and a process of reconciliation often follows conflict. This can involve the presentation of their rump to the dominant male of the group and is usually met with a response such as ‘lip smacking’ (16). The stump-tailed macaque is known to have numerous vocalisations including the friendly ‘coo’ used to initiate grooming and communicate with the group (11).
Following sexual maturity males tend to leave the group in which they were born, while females usually remain. The female usually gives birth to a single young after a gestation period of 166 to 185 days (about six months). Females characteristically give birth every two years and the task of caring for infants is shared among the group (14) (15). The stump-tailed macaque may live for up to 30 years, although a lifespan this long is more common for captive individuals than those in the wild (13).