The main threat to the streamside salamander is the destruction and fragmentation of its habitat by logging, human development and agricultural expansion (1) (4). When forests are cleared, air and soil temperatures increase, humidity decreases and the abundance of prey within the leaf litter changes, which are all detrimental to salamanders. The removal of streamside vegetation also increases water temperature and exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which can kill amphibians. In addition, streams in cleared areas experience increased sedimentation, which degrades salamander habitat by reducing the availability of cover, inhibiting the attachment of eggs to the substrate and adversely affecting embryo development (5).
Other threats to the streamside salamander include the pollution of stream habitats by acid mine drainage, pesticides, and herbicides, and the channelization of streams (3). Stream drying and flooding may also increase mortality, and these threats may increase in frequency with global climate change (1).