Stephens Island wren (Traversia lyalli)

loading
Stephens Island wren specimens
loading
Loading more images and videos...

Stephens Island wren fact file

Stephens Island wren description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
ClassAves
OrderPasseriformes
FamilyAcanthisittidae
GenusTraversia (1)

Now extinct, the Stephens Island wren was remarkable for being one of the few species of flightless, passerine birds (2) (3). Although distinctly wren-like in appearance, this species was not a member of the wren family, belonging instead to a more ancient family of tiny New Zealand birds, the Acanthisittidae (4). Like many other flightless birds, the Stephens Island wren had small, rounded wings, a short tail and soft, loose plumage (2). The upperparts were dark olive mottled with brown, with darker plumage on the wings and tail, while the throat and breast were olive-yellow becoming olive-brown on the underparts (4).

Also known as
Stephen’s Island wren.
Top

Stephens Island wren biology

The few observations of the Stephens Island wren in the wild indicate that it was mostly active at night and only occasionally during the day. It was a nimble species, running swiftly amongst rocks, where, like related species that are still alive today, it probably foraged for small invertebrates (4).

Top

Stephens Island wren range

The Stephens Island wren was common throughout New Zealand until the introduction of the Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) around 1,000 years ago (5). By the time of the Europeans’ arrival in the early 19th century, it had become restricted to Stephens Island, where it probably survived until the mid to late 1890s (6).

Top

Stephens Island wren habitat

The Stephens Island wren inhabited rocky areas amongst bush and forest (1) (6).

Top

Stephens Island wren status

Classified as Extinct (EX) on the IUCN Red List (1).

IUCN Red List species status – Extinct

Top

Stephens Island wren threats

Before the Europeans arrived in New Zealand, predation by the introduced Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) had already eliminated the Stephens Island wren from its entire habitat, with the exception of a small population on Stephens Island, which the rat had not colonised (5) (6). This population remained undisturbed until 1894, when a lighthouse was constructed on Stephens Island, leading to the clearance of a portion of the island’s bush and forest cover. While this was probably not a major factor in the decline of this species, the colonisation of the island also brought with it a non-native mammalian predator, the domestic cat. Various popular accounts have attributed the ultimate extinction of the Stephens Island wren to a single pet cat belonging to the lighthouse keeper but, in reality, it is likely that in the years following the construction of the lighthouse, a small, introduced population of cats exterminated the last remnants of this unique species (6).

Top

Stephens Island wren conservation

While the extinction of the Stephens Island wren is a particularly striking example of the catastrophic effects that introduced species can have on native species (6), there are, unfortunately, a number of other native New Zealand species that have suffered a similar fate. In response to the threat of invasive species, the New Zealand government, along with various conservation organisations, have worked diligently to eradicate invasive mammals from New Zealand’s islands and to control invasive plant and animal species on the mainland, receiving international recognition for their efforts (7).

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
Top

Find out more

To learn more about invasive species management in New Zealand visit:

For more information on this and other bird species please see:

Top

Authentication

This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact: arkive@wildscreen.org.uk
Top

Glossary

Invertebrates
Animals with no backbone.
Passerine
Referring to a group of more than 5,000 species of small to medium-sized birds which have widely varied plumage and shape. They all have three toes pointing forward and one directed backward which assists with perching, and are sometimes known as perching birds or song birds.
Top

References

  1. IUCN Red List (November, 2008)
    http://www.iucnredlist.org
  2. Millener, P.R. (1989) The only flightless passerine; the Stephens Island wren (Traversia lyalli: Acanthisittidae). Notornis, 36: 280 - 284.
  3. Rando, J.C., López, M. and Segui, B. (1999) A new species of extinct flightless passerine (Emberizidae: Emberiza) from the Canary Islands. The Condor, 101: 1 - 13.
  4. New Zealand Birds (November, 2008)
    http://www.nzbirds.com/birds/stephenswren.html
  5. Flannery, T. and Schouten, P. (2002) A Gap in Nature. Random House, London.
  6. Galbreath, R. and Brown, D. (2004) The tale of the lighthouse-keeper’s cat: Discovery and extinction of the Stephens Island wren (Traversia lyalli). Notornis, 51: 193 - 200.
  7. Conservation International (November, 2008)
    http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/hotspots/new_zealand
X
Close

Image credit

Stephens Island wren specimens  
Stephens Island wren specimens

© Paddy Ryan

Paddy Ryan
Ryan Photographic
2802 East 132nd Circle
Thornton
CO
80241
USA
Tel: +01 (303) 457 9795
paddyaryan@aol.com
http://www.ryanphotographic.com/

X
Close

Link to this photo

ARKive species - Stephens Island wren (Traversia lyalli) Embed this ARKive thumbnail link ("portlet") by copying and pasting the code below.

Terms of Use - The displayed portlet may be used as a link from your website to ARKive's online content for private, scientific, conservation or educational purposes only. It may NOT be used within Apps.

Read more about

X
Close

MyARKive

MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite ARKive images and videos and share them with friends.

Play the Team WILD game:

Team WILD, an elite squadron of science superheroes, needs your help! Your mission: protect and conserve the planet’s species and habitats from destruction.

Conservation in Action

Which species are on the road to recovery? Find out now »

Help us share the wonders of the natural world. Donate today!

Blog RSS