No detailed scientific study of the Sri Lankan leopard has been undertaken to date (4). Observations have revealed however, that these leopards may be more social than subspecies elsewhere, and they have also been known to tackle bigger prey including almost full-grown buffaloes (4). These intriguing differences may reflect the Sri Lankan leopard's unique position at the top of the food chain; leopards in other areas are superseded by the larger lions and tigers (4). Leopards tend to stalk and ambush their prey and are opportunistic hunters, taking a wide range of prey and readily scavenging carcasses. In Yala National Park, spotted deer appear to make up the majority of the diet (4).
Leopards are primarily arboreal and nocturnal, they are generally solitary creatures, with the exception of females and their young. Both sexes occupy territories although those of males tend to overlap those of several females (6). Litter size is usually around two cubs, and in Sri Lanka breeding is thought to take place during the dry season that runs from May to July (2).