Silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans)

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SIlver-haired bat in flight
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Silver-haired bat fact file

Silver-haired bat description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderChiroptera
FamilyVespertilionidae
GenusLasionycteris (1)

The only species in its genus (2) (3), the silver-haired bat is easily recognised by its dark black to blackish-brown fur, with silvery-white tipped hairs which give the overall ‘frosted’ appearance for which this bat is named (2) (3) (4) (5). This frosting is most conspicuous on the back, being reduced or absent on the face, head and throat. The underparts of the body are paler and also have less pronounced frosting (2) (4). The silver-haired bat has relatively short, rounded, naked ears (2) (3) (4), with a broad, blunt tragus (3) (4), and a tail membrane that is furred on the upper surface for about half of its length (2) (3) (4) (5). The wing and tail membranes are dark brown to black (3) (5). Male and female silver-haired bats are similar in appearance (4), while juveniles usually have more conspicuously white-tipped hairs than adults (3) (4). Older individuals may lack the white tips to the hairs, or may appear slightly yellowish (3).

Size
Head-body length: 5.5 - 6.5 cm (2)
Tail length: 3.5 - 5 cm (2) (3)
Wingspan: 27.9 - 31 cm (4)
Forearm length: 3.7 - 4.4 cm (2)
Weight
6 - 14 g (2)
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Silver-haired bat biology

The silver-haired bat feeds on insects (1) (2) (4), commonly taking flies, beetles, flying ants, termites and moths, although it is an opportunistic hunter that will also eat a wide range of other insect prey (1) (3) (5). It is believed to be one of the slowest flying bats in North America, but is highly manoeuvrable, and typically pursues prey over short distances (1) (2) (3) (4). Foraging commonly takes place along streams and ponds or in small clearings (4), although this species has also been reported to consume insect larvae on trees and even to forage on the ground (1).

Although often regarded as a solitary species, the silver-haired bat may form small ‘maternity colonies’ in spring, and has been reported to come together in groups of both sexes for the autumn migration (1) (2) (4), which takes place from August to October (2) (4). Courtship and mating also occur in the autumn, and most of the bats travel south to hibernate for the winter months (1) (2) (3) (4) (5), although some individuals are also known to hibernate in more northerly locations (1) (5). Female silver-haired bats are believed to migrate further than males (3), and it is possible that some males remain in the winter range throughout the year, with females moving north in April and May to give birth (2) (4) (5).

After mating, the female silver-haired bat is believed to store sperm over winter, delaying fertilisation until the spring. Two young (sometimes one) are normally born between June and July, after a gestation period of 50 to 60 days (1) (2) (3) (4) (5). The female roosts with the head facing upwards during the birth and bends the tail membrane forward to catch the young as it is born (1). The young are weaned after around 36 days and start to fly at about 3 weeks (2) (5). The silver-haired bat may reach sexual maturity after 5 months, and individuals have been recorded living for up to 12 years (2).

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Silver-haired bat range

The silver-haired bat occurs across North America, from Alaska and southern Canada, through most of the United States, south to Tamaulipas in northeast Mexico (1) (2) (3) (4) (5). It has also been recorded in Bermuda and on the Caicos Islands in the Bahamas (1) (2) (5).

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Silver-haired bat habitat

This species is typically found in temperate woodland and montane coniferous forest, close to streams, ponds or rivers (1) (2) (3) (4) (5). During the spring and summer, the silver-haired bat roosts in tree hollows, behind loose bark, in birds’ nests, and sometimes in buildings or caves (1) (2) (4) (5). In winter, this bat may hibernate inside hollow trees, under loose bark, in rock crevices, caves or mines, or inside buildings (1) (3) (4).

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Silver-haired bat status

Classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1).

IUCN Red List species status – Least Concern

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Silver-haired bat threats

The silver-haired bat is a widespread and relatively abundant species and is not currently considered at risk of extinction (1). However, as it inhabits woodlands and often roosts in trees, there are fears that deforestation and modern forestry management practices may pose a threat (1) (3) (6). In addition, there is concern about the potential impact of wind turbines on its populations, given that it is one of the bat species most frequently found killed at these developments in North America, although the exact cause of the deaths remains unclear (7) (8). Although generally having little association with humans, the silver-haired bat is also the bat species most frequently associated with incidents of human rabies within its range, despite a lack of evidence that a bite or close contact with the bats were involved in these cases (2) (4) (6).

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Silver-haired bat conservation

This distinctive bat is found in a number of protected areas across its range, and in Mexico it is listed as subject to special protection under national legislation (1). However, surprisingly little is known about many aspects of its behaviour and population dynamics (4). The silver-haired bat may therefore benefit from further research, including into the impact of forestry management practices and wind turbine developments on its populations (6) (7) (8).

ARKive is supported by OTEP, a joint programme of funding from the UK FCO and DFID which provides support to address priority environmental issues in the Overseas Territories, and Defra
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Find out more

For more information on bat conservation see:

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Authentication

This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:
arkive@wildscreen.org.uk

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Glossary

Fertilisation
The fusion of gametes (male and female reproductive cells) to produce an embryo, which grows into a new individual.
Genus
A category used in taxonomy, which is below ‘family’ and above ‘species’. A genus tends to contain species that have characteristics in common. The genus forms the first part of a ‘binomial’ Latin species name; the second part is the specific name.
Gestation
The state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth.
Hibernate
Hibernation is a winter survival strategy in which an animal’s metabolic rate slows down and a state of deep sleep is attained. Whilst hibernating, animals survive on stored reserves of fat that they have accumulated in summer.
Larvae
Stage in an animal’s lifecycle after it hatches from the egg. Larvae are typically very different in appearance to adults; they are able to feed and move around but usually are unable to reproduce.
Montane forest
Forest occurring in the montane zone, a zone of cool upland slopes below the tree line dominated by large evergreen trees.
Tragus
A soft cartilaginous projection extending in front of the external opening of the ear. In bats, it plays an important role in filtering returning echoes in echolocation.
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References

  1. IUCN Red List (July, 2010)
    http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  2. Nowak, R.M. (1991) Walker’s Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.
  3. Kunz, T.H. (1982) Lasionycteris noctivagans. Mammalian Species, 172: 1-5. Available at:
    http://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/VHAYSSEN/msi/pdf/i0076-3519-172-01-0001.pdf
  4. Whitaker Jr, J.O. and Hamilton Jr, W.J. (1998) Mammals of the Eastern United States. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
  5. Schmidly, D.J. (1994) The Mammals of Texas. Revised Edition. University of Texas Press, Austin.
  6. Hutson, A.M., Mickleburgh, S.P. and Racey, P.A. (2001) Microchiropteran Bats: Global Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Chiroptera Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Available at:
    http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2001-008.pdf
  7. Cryan, P.M. and Barclay, R.M.R. (2009) Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: hypotheses and predictions. Journal of Mammalogy, 90(6): 1330-1340.
  8. Kunz, T.H., Arnett, E.B., Erickson, W.P., Hoar, A.R., Johnson, G.D., Larkin, R.P., Strickland, M.D., Thresher, R.W. and Tuttle, M.D. (2007) Ecological impacts of wind energy development on bats: questions, research needs, and hypotheses. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(6): 315-324.
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SIlver-haired bat in flight  
SIlver-haired bat in flight

© Barry Mansell / naturepl.com

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