Encouragingly, the seven-coloured tanager was ‘downlisted’ from Endangered to Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List in 2004, following important recent discoveries of a number of previously-unknown populations (2) (4). Nevertheless, the bird is still in grave danger of extinction, with the small remaining population in an ongoing decline as a result of habitat loss and trapping to supply the cage-bird trade (2) (4). Just two percent of north-east Brazil’s original Atlantic Forest now remains, having been cleared on a massive scale, or replaced by secondary forest without the epiphytes needed for nesting (6), largely as a result of logging and conversion to sugarcane plantations and pastureland (2). Today, just 95 square kilometres of suitable habitat remains, divided over a number of small fragments (6), and most of this is still subject to selective logging and poaching (2) (4). This vibrantly-coloured bird is in high demand for the cage-bird trade, and trapping is heavy due to the high prices commanded by the species’ exceptional plumage (2) (6). Professional trappers are able to catch up to 30 seven-coloured tanagers in a single day where the species is at its most common, and law enforcement is noticeably absent, particularly in Alagoas (4). With new roads still being cut through the last remnant forest fragments, access for hunters is getting ever-easier and the chances of long-term survival for this bird look increasingly slim (6).