Scorpion (Apistobuthus pterygocercus)

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Adult Apistobuthus pterygocercus
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Scorpion fact file

Scorpion description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumArthropoda
ClassArachnida
OrderScorpiones
FamilyButhidae
GenusApistobuthus (1)

The scorpion Apistobuthus pterygocercus is noted for the conspicuous circular secondary segment on its tail. This feature, which is thought to be unique among all known species of scorpion (2), has fascinated scorpion enthusiasts the world over (4).

The body of Apistobuthus pterygocercus is yellow and covered with distinct ridges (3) (5). It boasts long, slender legs with flattened feet exposing long bristles (3). Long lean pincers are used for prey capture, defence and also provide a sense of touch (3) (5).

Located at the posterior end of the scorpion on the underside of the abdomen lie the pectines. The pectines are long comb-like structures which are primarily used as sensory organs. The tip of the tail is bulbous with a long curved stinger (3).

The male Apistobuthus pterygocercus is usually slimmer and lighter than the female and possesses a larger number of teeth on the pectines (45 to 60 teeth) compared to the female (32 to 43 teeth) (3).  

Size
Length: 8 - 10 cm (2)
Male weight: 5 g (3)
Female weight: 7 g (3)
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Scorpion biology

A nocturnal hunter, Apistobuthus pterygocercus rests during the day in a burrow, and ventures out at night to feed upon small scorpions and other invertebrates roaming through the sands (3). It is an ‘ambush’ predator that captures prey using its pincers and chelicerae (5). During periods when food is sparse, feeding by ‘engorgement’ may take place, whereby a larger item of prey is captured and subdued by the venom of the scorpion (3).

At the onset of mating, male and female participate in a ‘mating dance’, a classic Promenade à deux. The aim of this dance is to guide the female to a suitable location for sperm transfer to occur. When a suitable location is found, the male releases a spermatophore onto the ground. The female is then guided to hover her genital opening over the male’s spermatophore so as to take up the sperm packet (3) (5). Once sperm transfer is complete, the male and female generally separate (5).

The female gives birth deep inside the burrow. Like most scorpions, the offspring will climb on top of the female’s back until their first moulting, after which they will disperse from the burrow. The young Apistobuthus pterygocercus will go on to lead a solitary existence apart from when mating commences (3) (5).  

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Scorpion range

Apistobuthus pterygocercus occurs in the Rub’al Khali, or Empty quarter, one of the largest sand deserts in the world, which spans the central and southern Arabian Peninsula (3) (6) (7). It also occurs in the Wahiba sands, a desert in Oman, where it is the most abundant dune scorpion species (3)

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Scorpion habitat

A sand-loving species, Apistobuthus pterygocercus occurs in tall mobile sand dunes. It often digs its burrows where bush or shrub roots have stabilised the soil, making it better for burrow construction. Foraging occurs out on the soft, unstabilised, wind-swept dunes (3)

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Scorpion status

Apistobuthus pterygocercus has yet to be classified by the IUCN.

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Scorpion threats

There are no known major threats to Apistobuthus pterygocercus, due to its remote location where there is little or no human habitation or activity. However, its dune habitat may be disturbed by off-road recreational vehicles (3).

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Scorpion conservation

There are currently no known conservation measures in place for Apistobuthus pterygocercus. Experts propose that if the extensive dune systems of the Arabian Peninsula remain relatively untouched, this species is in no danger. Possible disruptions to dune systems by off-road recreational vehicles may be prevented by establishing officially protected areas in the Rub al’Khali (3).  

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi is a principal sponsor of ARKive. EAD is working to protect and conserve the environment as well as promoting sustainable development in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.
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Find out more

Learn about conservation in Abu Dhabi and the UAE:

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Authentication

This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:
arkive@wildscreen.org.uk

This species information was authored as part of the ARKive and Universities Scheme.
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Glossary

Chelicerae
Pair of appendages on the ‘head’ of an arachnid (a spider, scorpion, mite or harvestman). In spiders and harvestmen, these appendages are jointed and are used to kill prey, or in defence. In spiders there is a poison gland at the base of each chelicera, from which a duct leads to the tip of the fang.
Invertebrates
Animals with no backbone, such as insects, crustaceans, worms, molluscs, spiders, cnidarians (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones) and echinoderms.
Moult
In insects, a stage of growth whereby the hard outer layer of the body (the exoskeleton) is shed and the body becomes larger.
Nocturnal
Active at night.
Spermatophore
A capsule or mass of sperm transferred from the male to the female during mating.
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References

  1. UNEP-WCMC (July, 2011) 
    http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  2. Navidpour, S. and Lowe, G. (2009) Revised diagnosis and redescription of Apistobuthus susanae (Scorpiones, Buthidae). The Journal of Arachnology, 37: 45-59.
  3. Lowe, G. (November, 2010) Pers. comm.
  4. Vachon, M. (1960) Quelques remarques sur Apistobuthus pterygocercus Finnegan, scorpion (buthidae) habitant L’Arabie. Archives de l’institute Pasteur d-Algerie, 38: 399-405.
  5. Polis, G. (1990) The Biology of Scorpions. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.
  6. Vincent, P. (2008) Saudi Arabia: An Environmental Overview. Taylor & Francis, London, UK.
  7. Fet, V., Sissom, D., Lowe, G. and Braunwalder, M. (2000) Catalogue of the Scorpions of the World (1758-1998). The New York Entomological Society, New York.
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Image credit

Adult Apistobuthus pterygocercus  
Adult Apistobuthus pterygocercus

© Drew Gardner

Dr Drew Gardner
asgardner@gmail.com
http://www.flickr.com/photos/drewgardner/

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