Scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis)
|Also known as:||laughter bringer, shepherd's joy, shepherd's sundial, shepherd's weather-glass|
|Size||Leaf length: 8 – 28 mm (2)|
Height: 6 – 30 cm (2)
Flower diameter: 14 mm (2)
Common and widespread: not threatened (3).
As the alternative names of shepherd’s sundial and shepherd’s weather-glass suggest, scarlet pimpernel is well-known for its ability to indicate both the weather and the time of day. The small, bright scarlet flowers open at around 8 am each day, and close at 3 pm. They also close during humid or damp weather (4). This member of the primrose family is a diminutive plant, creeping close to the ground. The egg-shaped leaves are pale green and dotted with black on the undersides (2). The flowers of the subspecies native to Britain (arvensis) are red or pink, but a blue-flowered form (Forma azurea) also occurs, which is often confused with the introduced subspecies blue pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis subsp. foemina) (2). The name pimpernel comes from the Old French pimprenele, the misapplied name of the burnet saxifrage, Pimpinella saxifrage (4).
This native plant is common and widespread throughout much of Britain, becoming a rare and mainly coastal species further north, particularly in Scotland (2) (3). Elsewhere this species has a very broad global distribution, being found throughout much of the world, except the tropics (2).
Occuring in open habitats and typically a weed of arable areas and gardens, scarlet pimpernel is also found around rabbit warrens, on road verges, sand dunes, heaths, chalk downland and on coastal cliffs (2) (3).
Scarlet pimpernel is typically an annual or short-lived perennial species (3). It flowers from May to late August and is pollinated by visiting insects, which are attracted by means of bright purple hairs inside the flowers which apparently act as lures (5). When it is ripe, the fruit capsule at the centre of the flower splits open, with the top section hinging backwards to allow the release of the tiny seeds within (4).
This plant was widely used in the past to treat toothache, liver problems, snake bites and kidney inflammation. As the names ‘laughter bringer’ and ‘shepherd’s joy’ indicate, it was also used to reduce bouts of melancholia (4).
This species is not threatened.
Conservation action is not required for this very common species.
For more on British native plants and for details of how to get involved in plant conservation visit the website of Plantlife, the wild plant charity:
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- Annual: lives or grows for just one year.
- Perennial: plants that live for at least three seasons; after an initial period they produce flowers once a year.
- Subspecies: a population usually restricted to a geographical area that differs from other populations of the same species, but not to the extent of being classified as a separate species.
- National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (September 2003): http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nbn/
- Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G., and Moore, D.M. (1987) Flora of the British Isles 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. and Dines, T.D. (2002) New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- Grigson, G. (1996) The Englishmans Flora. Helicon Publishing, Ltd., Oxford.
- Botanical.com (December 2003): http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/pimper33.html