Forest clearance began on São Tomé in the late 15th century, when early colonisers made space for the cultivation of sugar cane. In the 1800s, the rate of deforestation accelerated dramatically, first with the production of coffee and later with cocoa. At one stage in the early 20th century, São Tomé was the world’s largest producer of cocoa, with an estimated 42 percent of the island being devoted to its production. The crash in the price of cocoa, and the island’s conversion to independence in 1975, put a stop to forest clearance but not before almost all the island’s lowland primary forest had been destroyed (3). Naturally, this had a devastating impact on much of the endemic wildlife, including the São Tomé grosbeak population (2) (3). Today, the population is estimated at less than 50 individuals, restricted to habitat under increasing pressure from land privatisation (2) (4). Furthermore, road developments along the east and west coasts are increasing access to previously remote areas, while introduced rats, monkeys, weasels and civets are all potential predators (2) (3).