Forest clearance began on São Tomé in the late 15th century, when early colonisers made space for the cultivation of sugar cane. In the 1800s the rate of deforestation accelerated dramatically, first with the production of coffee and later with cocoa. At one stage in the early 20th century, São Tomé was the world’s largest producer of cocoa, with an estimated 42 percent of the island being devoted to its production. The crash in the price of cocoa, and the island’s conversion to independence in 1975, put a stop to forest clearance but not before almost all the island’s lowland primary forest had been destroyed (5). The impact of this large scale loss of habitat for the São Tomé fiscal is plain to see, with its population estimated in 2000 to be less than 50 individuals (2). While much of the cultivated land has now reverted back to secondary forest, the São Tomé fiscal appears to be restricted to the tiny remaining areas of lowland primary forest. Fortunately, because these areas are so remote, they are not under immediate threat, but with road development opening up more and more land on the island, this could very easily change in the future. Furthermore, there is high probability that introduced animals such as rats, monkeys, weasels and civets have had a negative impact on nesting birds, including the São Tomé fiscal (2) (5).