Red campion is a common spring-flowering plant that in some areas is known as the 'cuckoo-flower' as it shares a season with this winged harbinger of spring (4). During May, it can often be found in association with bluebells and early purple orchids in the same area (5). The flowers are, as the common name suggests, red in colour, but pink and white-flowered varieties may arise (4). The leaves at the base of the plants are elliptical in shape with long winged stalks. The upper leaves are hairy, have short stalks and are more oblong in shape (2). When the plant has ceased flowering, the seed capsules become apparent; these capsules open at the top, allowing the numerous small black seeds to escape (2).
Red campion occurs as either a biennial or a short-lived perennial herb. The flowers, which are present from May to July are pollinated by long-tonged bumblebees and hoverflies (6)(2). The seeds ripen between June and August (6). As the scientific name dioica suggests, this species is dioecious, which means that individual plants bear either all male or all female flowers (6).
Common and widespread throughout Britain up to altitudes of 1065 m in Scotland (3). It becomes rare in the Brecklands of East Anglia. This plant is also found in much of Europe, reaching as far north as the Faeroes and Spitsbergen, but it is absent from the Mediterranean. It is found in central Asia, North Africa and Greenland and has been introduced to North America (2).
This species thrives best in lightly shaded habitats including coppiced woodlands, shaded gardens, hedgerows, as well as rides and clearings in woodlands (2)(3). It needs high levels of mineral nutrients and is also found in coastal areas, on cliffs, rock crevices, sea-bird rocks as well as in mountainous habitats including screes (3). A non-flowering form is able to withstand deep shade (3).
A plant that lives for two years and typically flowers only in the second year.
Coppicing is a traditional form of woodland management in which trees are cut close to the base of the trunk. Re-growth occurs in the form of many thin poles. Coppiced woodlands are cut in this way on rotation, producing a mosaic of different stages of re-growth.
Male and female flowers are borne on separate plants.
Plants that live for at least three seasons; after an initial period they produce flowers once a year.
The footpaths and access tracks which run through and divide blocks of trees in woodland. Many rides contain a mixture of rich flora and structure, and provide different habitat conditions for a range of wildlife.
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