With almost 800 species, Brazil has the greatest diversity of amphibians in the world. However, a large number of these species are classified as threatened with extinction, the majority of which occur in the Atlantic forest (5), a diverse and unique mix of vegetation that forms a relatively narrow strip down the eastern coastline of South America (6). The main threat to amphibians in Brazil is the destruction of their habitats through deforestation, conversion into agricultural land, mining, wildfires, infrastructure development and urbanisation (5).
Like Brazil’s other threatened amphibians, Melanophryniscus dorsalis is also suffering from a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat. Its populations are suspected to have undergone a significant decline in recent years. It was previously collected rather extensively during surveys, but there have only been a few collections recently. The main threat to this species’ habitat is conversion to tourist beaches, urbanisation, and off-road recreational vehicle use (1) (3).