Female pygmy hogs are found in small groups, known as 'sounders', composed of one or two adults and their young (4). Males are solitary except for during the mating season, which begins towards the end of November (2). Rival males compete for access to females during this time and will use threatening displays that are also typical of other members of this genus; adopting a broadside stance, their hair bristles and they turn their heads yawning and curling the lips to show their canine teeth (2). Pregnant females will move away from their group to give birth, usually to a litter of four to six piglets after a gestation period of around 120 days (2). Pygmy hogs are unusual in that both sexes use nests year round. The whole family makes use of the nest constructed in a depression on the ground and lined with grasses (4).
Pygmy hogs forage for a wide variety of foods, eating roots, grasses, fruits, insects and earthworms amongst others (2). Groups occupy small home ranges of about 25 hectares (7) and regularly used paths can be seen amongst the tall elephant grasses. Travelling single file, the adults of the group take up the front and the rear of the procession (4).