In 1968, concentrated conservation efforts were begun to try to mitigate all these threats, involving experiments with artificial nest-sites, control of nest predators and competitors, and captive breeding and re-introduction (7). The Puerto Rican Parrot Recovery Programme was begun between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the U.S.D.A. Forest Service, and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources (DNER) (9). Captive breeding was initiated in 1973, with the creation of the Luquillo Aviary within the Caribbean National Forest (4). In 1993, this captive flock was split and a portion moved to a second aviary in Rio Abajo at the opposite end of the island, in order to prevent the potential catastrophic loss of the entire captive flock due to hurricanes or disease (4) (5) (8). The captive breeding programme has experienced great success, with 190 birds now living in the two breeding aviaries (4). Since May 2000, captive reared parrots have been being released into the wild to bolster the wild population, with over 40 birds released to date (4). All remaining habitat is protected in the Caribbean National Forest (7) but it is nevertheless possible that a single powerful hurricane could destroy the entire wild population in their restricted range of a single mountainous valley (4). Thus, exciting plans have been made by Dr. White for a huge release in 2006 into a second, more protected Karst region on the opposite end of the island (4). Should this introduction be successful, this rare parrot will be given an infinitely greater chance of survival and, although still critically low, the species’ steadily increasing numbers provide a glimpse of hope for the future.