Pitcher plants are dioecious, meaning that male and female flowers grow on separate plants (4), and many only begin to flower once the upper pitchers are produced (5). The flowers produce larger amounts of nectar during the early evening and night. This nectar attracts a variety of pollinating insects during the day, including day moths and flies, as well as moths at night. Once fertilised, a fruit usually takes about three months to develop and ripen. The fruits of Nepenthes species produce between 50 and 500 very light, winged seeds, which can measure up to 30 millimetres long, and are thought to be dispersed by the wind (2) (6). Despite enormous numbers of seeds being produced, only a few manage to germinate and only a fraction of those survive to maturity (2).