The population of the Pitcairn reed-warbler was estimated at around 2,000 to 3,000 individuals in 1998 to 1999, at which time it was increasing dramatically following partial control of introduced cats and Pacific rats (Rattus exulans) (2) (3). However, by 2005 the numbers of cats and rats had recovered, and after two unsuccessful eradication attempts there may be little support for a third (3). Habitat degradation is also a threat, due to clearance for crops and gardening, browsing by goats, overexploitation for wood, and the spread of introduced plants such as the rose apple. Today, only remnants of the original vegetation remain (3) (4). The highly restricted range of the Pitcairn reed-warbler, covering just the five square kilometres of Pitcairn, puts it at particular risk, as does its small population, which is continuing to decline due to ongoing predation and habitat loss (2) (3).