The pine grosbeak (Pinocla enucleator) is a large, plump, heavy-chested bird, which differs in appearance between sexes (2) (3). The distinctive plumage of the male is deep rose-pink on the head, neck, breast and rump, grey on each side of the body, and streaked black on the upperparts (2) (3) (4). The throat is grey or white and there are also white or grey patches underneath the eyes (3). The male pine grosbeak has a long, notched black-brown tail with a grey underside, and there are conspicuous white wingbars on its brown-black wings (2) (3) (4). The tips of some of the flight feathers are white (2) (3).
The distinctive bill of the pine grosbeak is dark grey or black in both sexes and is large, stubby and conical, with the upper mandible overlapping the lower (2) (3). The eyes are cinnamon or dark brown and the legs, toes and claws are dark brown, or occasionally grey-horn (3).
The female pine grosbeak is smaller than the male (3) and is equally as distinctive (4). The head and rump of the female are yellow-olive to red-bronze, while the rest of the body is uniformly grey (2) (3). The juvenile pine grosbeak is almost indistinguishable from the adult female until its second year of life (2) (3), although it is slightly duller and greyer (4). Occasionally young males have red or orange feathers within their plumage, which are not present in the female (2).
There are nine recognised subspecies of pine grosbeak, which vary in their breeding range, body size and bill size and shape, as well as in the length of the wings, tail and legs (3).
The clear, flute-like song of the pine grosbeak is used during courtship, to maintain pair bonds and for the defence of a territory (2) (3). This bird is also able to mimic the vocalisations of other species (3).
- Length: 20 - 25 cm (2)
- Wingspan: c. 33 cm (2)
- 53 - 78 g (3)