Pemphis (Pemphis acidula)

Pemphis acidula flowers
Loading more images and videos...

Pemphis fact file

Pemphis description

GenusPemphis (1)

A typically sprawling mangrove species, Pemphis acidula may grow as a densely branched evergreen shrub or small tree. The succulent, pointed, grey-green leaves are arranged opposite each other on tough, woody branches. Pale greyish-white flattened hairs cover the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf (2) (3) (4).

The small, crumpled, cup-shaped flowers of Pemphis acidula are white or pale pink, and bloom irregularly throughout the year. Tiny, rounded, reddish fruits are produced after flowering, and each contains around 20 seeds (2) (3) (4).

Height: up to 11 m (2)

Pemphis biology

There is very little information available about the biology of Pemphis acidula.


Pemphis range

Pemphis acidula has a wide tropical and sub-tropical distribution. It is found in East Africa and throughout the Indian Ocean, including the British Indian Ocean Territory, the Maldives, Mozambique, Tanzania, and the Seychelles. In South Asia, Pemphis acidula occurs throughout Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, north to Japan and as far west as Sri Lanka. Pemphis acidula is also widespread throughout the Australasian region and the Pacific Islands (2) (4) (5).


Pemphis habitat

Typically found along shorelines, Pemphis acidula inhabits rocky and sandy beaches above the high tide mark. It may also be found in areas of elevated coral reef (2) (5) (6) (7).


Pemphis status

Pemphis acidula is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1).

IUCN Red List species status – Least Concern


Pemphis threats

The current primary threat to Pemphis acidula is the collection of wild individuals for trade as bonsai ornaments. This species is also under pressure from a number of localised threats, including habitat destruction for coastal development (1) (5).

Furthermore, rising sea levels and climate change are increasingly threatening Pemphis acidula by causing damage to its habitat and disrupting mangrove ecosystems. Pollution and natural threats such as cyclones, hurricanes and tsunamis are also likely to negatively impact this species (1) (5).


Pemphis conservation

There are currently no conservation measures specifically targeting Pemphis acidula, although it may be found in some marine and coastal protected areas (1) (5).

Recommendations for the conservation of this species include continued monitoring and research, and the inclusion of more mangrove areas within marine and coastal protected areas. In addition, Pemphis acidula would benefit from increased control over its use in the ornamental plant industry, as well as better regulation of the removal of individuals from the wild (1) (5).

ARKive is supported by OTEP, a joint programme of funding from the UK FCO and DFID which provides support to address priority environmental issues in the Overseas Territories, and Defra

Find out more

Find out more about mangrove conservation:



This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:



A plant which retains leaves all year round. This is in contrast to deciduous plants, which completely lose their leaves for part of the year.
In plants, species with thick, fleshy, water-storing stems and leaves.


  1. IUCN Red List (February, 2011)
  2. eFlora - Pemphis acidula (February, 2011)
  3. Clay, H.F. and Hubbard, J.C. (1997) Tropical Shrubs. The University of Hawaii Press, Hawaii.
  4. Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants - Pemphis acidula (February, 2011)
  5. Global Marine Species Assessment - Pemphis acidula (February, 2011)
  6. Selvam, V. (2007) Trees and Shrubs of the Maldives. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok. Available at:
  7. Plants and Environments of the Marshall Islands (February, 2011)

Image credit

Pemphis acidula flowers  
Pemphis acidula flowers

© Arjo Vanderjagt

Arjo Vanderjagt


Link to this photo

Arkive species - Pemphis (Pemphis acidula) Embed this Arkive thumbnail link ("portlet") by copying and pasting the code below.

Terms of Use - The displayed portlet may be used as a link from your website to Arkive's online content for private, scientific, conservation or educational purposes only. It may NOT be used within Apps.

Read more about



MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite Arkive images and videos and share them with friends.

Play the Team WILD game:

Team WILD, an elite squadron of science superheroes, needs your help! Your mission: protect and conserve the planet’s species and habitats from destruction.

Conservation in Action

Which species are on the road to recovery? Find out now »

This species is featured in:

This species is affected by global climate change. To learn about climate change and the species that are affected, visit our climate change pages.

This species is featured in:

Help us share the wonders of the natural world. Donate today!


Back To Top