Having suffered from intensive, unsustainable logging throughout the 20th century, today the Parana pine exists only in relic populations (1). As an important commercial species, the high quality wood of the Parana pine was exploited for the timber trade, and its highly nutritious fruits were sold for human consumption (1) (4). However, the Parana pine now occupies a patchy distribution across a limited range and, consequently, is one of Brazil’s rarest trees (5). Amongst the remaining population, there is a significant lack of fruiting trees, which has severely limited the species’ reproductive ability (4) (5). This has been further compounded by the annual exploitation of 3,400 tons of its fruits and seeds. Attempts have been made to reintroduce the species into parts of its historical range, but this has been prevented by the spread of competitive Pinus and Eucalyptus species, and agricultural encroachment (1).