Tuesday 21 May
Olalla Brothers’ titi (Callicebus olallae)
What’s the World’s Favourite Species?Find out here.
Olalla Brothers’ titi fact file
- Find out more
- Print factsheet
Olalla Brothers’ titi description
One of the rarest titi monkeys, the Olalla Brothers’ titi is restricted to a tiny tract of lowland Bolivian gallery forest (1). An attractive, small-bodied primate, the Olalla Brothers’ titi has an elongated tail, a dense pelage of long, soft hairs, and a small, rounded head with a flattened face (3). A blackish facial fringe, an orange coloured back and limbs, and small, inconspicuous white ear tufts distinguish the Olalla Brothers’ titi from closely-related species (4) (5). The tail is a contrasting black with alternating bands of reddish-brown (4) (5).
- Also known as
- Beni titi monkey, Olalla’s titi, Olalla’s titi monkey. Top
Wildlife Conservation Society Bolivia:
Asociación Boliviana para la Conservación
- A species or taxonomic group that is only found in one particular country or geographic area.
- The degree to which a species or taxonomic group is confined to a single region.
- Evergreen forest
- Forest consisting mainly of evergreen trees, which retain leaves all year round. This is in contrast to deciduous trees, which completely lose their leaves for part of the year.
- Gallery forest
- Forest growing along a river or stream.
- The state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth.
- Having only one mate during a breeding season, or throughout the breeding life of a pair.
- The coat of a mammal, composed of fur, hair or wool, covering the bare skin.
IUCN Red List (March, 2010)
CITES (March, 2010)
- Nowak, R.M. (1999) Mammals of the World. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
- van Roosmalen, M.G.M., van Roosmalen, R. and Mittermeiser, R.A. (2002) A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates, 10: 1-52.
- Felton, A., Felton, A.M., Wallace, R.B. and Gomez, H. (2006) Identification, behavioural observations, and notes on the distribution of the titi monkeys Callicebus modestus Lonnberg, 1939 and Callicebus olallae, Lonnberg 1939. Primate Conservation, 20: 41-46.
- Martinez, J. and Wallace, R.B. (2007) Further notes on the distribution of endemic Bolivian titi monkeys Callicebus modestus and Callicebus olallae, Neotropical Primates, 14: 47-54.
- Macdonald, D.W. (2009) The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Wildlife Conservation Society Bolivia (March, 2010)
Asociación Armonía (March, 2010)
Asociación Boliviana para la Conservación (March, 2010)
- view the contents of, and Material on, the website;
- download and retain copies of the Material on their personal systems in digital form in low resolution for their own personal use;
- teachers, lecturers and students may incorporate the Material in their educational material (including, but not limited to, their lesson plans, presentations, worksheets and projects) in hard copy and digital format for use within a registered educational establishment, provided that the integrity of the Material is maintained and that copyright ownership and authorship is appropriately acknowledged by the End User.
Olalla Brothers’ titi biology
Rarely descending to the ground, titi monkeys traverse the canopy with a distinctive gait, skilfully climbing through the branches on all four limbs. While resting, titi monkeys hunch the body, hanging the tail vertically over a branch. From this position they can use the powerful rear limbs to jump spectacular distances, grasping onto branches with leading forehands. Titi monkeys forage during the day for fruits, leaves and insects, resting during midday, and sleep on carefully selected trees that offer safety from predators at night (3). The male leads the group whilst foraging, communicating to the rest of the group with a wide array of vocalisations and visual signals (3).
Titi monkeys are monogamous, with groups consisting of strongly-bonded parents and their offspring. Partners often reinforce the pair bond by perching side-by-side and entwining tails. Females give birth annually during the wet season to just one infant, after a gestation period of five to six months (7). Juveniles grow rapidly to reach adult size within ten months (3).Top
Olalla Brothers’ titi range
The Olalla Brothers’ titi is endemic to the southwest of the Beni Department, Bolivia, where it is found near the Yacuma and Manique Rivers (1). This monkey is believed to have one of the highest levels of primate endemism in the world, with a total range of only 50 to 400 square kilometres (6). The species’ range is confined in the west by the vast Rio Beni River and to the east by a road. The Olalla Brothers’ titi has become extirpated from much of its former range, and a population that was once found around La Laguna is now considered extinct (5).Top
Olalla Brothers’ titi habitatTop
Olalla Brothers’ titi statusTop
Olalla Brothers’ titi threats
Already restricted in range, the Olalla Brothers’ titi is threatened by further habitat loss and hunting (1). Many groups are found in isolated, relict forest patches surrounded by cattle ranches and agricultural grasslands, limiting the species’ natural dispersal. Hunting pressure also exists throughout its range, as some indigenous groups of people still rely on subsistence hunting of primates, and its skin and fur may be used to make rope and thread. Hunting is particularly intense during the annual Brazil nut harvest when workers obtain most of their food from hunting (6). The Olalla Brothers’ titi may also be captured for use as bait in fishing and cat hunting, or as pets (1).Top
Olalla Brothers’ titi conservation
Although not found in any protected areas, the Olalla Brothers’ titi has received some protection from landowners that prohibit hunting on their land. However, this endangered monkey is still highly vulnerable to encroaching agriculture and urbanisation and it is imperative that its habitat receives some form of legal protection (1). Thankfully, the Wildlife Conservation Society is helping indigenous people to develop sustainable livelihoods and reduce deforestation (8). Other organisations, such as Asociación Armonía and Asociación Boliviana para la Conservación, are also working to highlight the plight of some of the most vulnerable species in the region (9) (10). Further research into the ecology and distribution of the Olalla Brothers’ titi is urgently required if this species is to escape extinction (5).Top
Find out more
For more information on conservation in Bolivia, see:
Authenticated (20/05/10) by Matthew Richardson, primatologist and author.Top
MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite ARKive images and videos and share them with friends.
Terms and Conditions of Use of Materials
Copyright in this website and materials contained on this website (Material) belongs to Wildscreen or its licensors.
Visitors to this website (End Users) are entitled to:
End Users shall not copy or otherwise extract, alter or manipulate Material other than as permitted in these Terms and Conditions of Use of Materials.
Additional use of flagged material
Green flagged material
Certain Material on this website (Licence 4 Material) displays a green flag next to the Material and is available for not-for-profit conservation or educational use. This material may be used by End Users, who are individuals or organisations that are in our opinion not-for-profit, for their not-for-profit conservation or not-for-profit educational purposes. Low resolution, watermarked images may be copied from this website by such End Users for such purposes. If you require high resolution or non-watermarked versions of the Material, please contact Wildscreen with details of your proposed use.
Creative commons material
Certain Material on this website has been licensed to Wildscreen under a Creative Commons Licence. These images are clearly marked with the Creative Commons buttons and may be used by End Users only in the way allowed by the specific Creative Commons Licence under which they have been submitted. Please see http://creativecommons.org for details.
Any other use
Please contact the copyright owners directly (copyright and contact details are shown for each media item) to negotiate terms and conditions for any use of Material other than those expressly permitted above. Please note that many of the contributors to ARKive are commercial operators and may request a fee for such use.
Save as permitted above, no person or organisation is permitted to incorporate any copyright material from this website into any other work or publication in any format (this includes but is not limited to: websites, Apps, CDs, DVDs, intranets, extranets, signage, digital communications or on printed materials for external or other distribution). Use of the Material for promotional, administrative or for-profit purposes is not permitted.