Narrow-leaved cudweed (Filago gallica)

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Narrow-leaved cudweed
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Narrow-leaved cudweed fact file

Narrow-leaved cudweed description

KingdomPlantae
PhylumAnthophyta
ClassMagnoliopsida
OrderAsterales
FamilyAsteraceae
GenusFilago (1)

Narrow-leaved cudweed produces tiny flowers (4) and has small, narrow, silvery-grey to green leaves. The seeds are known as achenes, which are single seeded fruits that separate from the plant in one piece (5). Two types of achene are produced, the first type is shed in the bracts, and the second type is blown away in the wind (4). The common name of the cudweeds arises from the practice dating from the 1600s of placing these plants in the mouth of cows that had 'lost their cud' (6).

Size
Height: 5-15 cm (occasionally up to 30cm) (2)
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Narrow-leaved cudweed biology

Narrow-leaved cudweed tends to occur as a summer annual in the UK, but seeds can generally germinate at any time of the year, so it may occasionally occur as a winter annual. The flowers are thought to self-pollinate, and there have been no records of insects visiting the flowers (4). A seed bank can lie dormant until conditions become suitable for the plant to germinate (3). Although thought to be an introduced species in Britain for many years, recent work suggests that it is actually a native species (4).

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Narrow-leaved cudweed range

In the UK this species reaches the northern extreme of its range (4). It is restricted to the south-east of England and Sark in the Channel Islands, and has always been rare (3). During the last 100 years this plant has suffered a serious decline (4), and was thought to be extinct on mainland Britain by 1955 (4). Elsewhere it occurs mainly in south and west Europe and North Africa (4) and is threatened in Eastern Europe (3).

You can view distribution information for this species at the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
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Narrow-leaved cudweed habitat

Inhabits open sites that are subject to disturbance, including arable field margins (3), gravel pits, heathland and sandy open ground (4).

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Narrow-leaved cudweed status

Classified as Critically Endangered in Great Britain (3).

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Narrow-leaved cudweed threats

Narrow-leaved cudweed has declined because of changes in agriculture, and the rabbit population crash after the introduction of myxomatosis, which led to a decrease in the level of disturbance (3). At one Essex site the cessation of military activity after the war is thought to have resulted in the loss of the species following scrub invasion and dense growth of grasses (4). Rubbish dumping and scrub invasion are currently the main threats on Sark (4).

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Narrow-leaved cudweed conservation

In 1994 it was discovered that there was a source of native narrow-leaved cudweed in cultivation. A re-introduction programme was established by Plantlife, the wild plant conservation charity, and by 1998 the species had become established at the last known British site (4). A Biodiversity Action Plan has been formulated by Plantlife, and seed has been collected for the Millennium Seed Bank at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (4).

There may be further information about this species available via the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
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Find out more

For more on Plantlife, the wild plant conservation charity see:
http://www.plantlife.org.uk
For more on Plantlife's Back from the Brink Campaign see:
http://www.plantlife.org.uk/html/conservation_bfb_programme.htm

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Authentication

Information jointly authenticated by Tim Rich of the National Museums and Galleries of Wales, and Plantlife.

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Glossary

Achene
A simple single-seeded fruit that falls from the plant in one piece; they usually in occur in clusters.
Annual
Lives or grows for just one year.
Bract
Modified leaf at the base of a flower.
Myxomatosis
A contagious viral disease in rabbits.
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References

  1. National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary ( March 2002) http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nbn/
  2. Rich, T. C. G. (2002) Pers. comm.
  3. Wigginton, M. J. (1999) British Red Data Books 1; Vascular Plants. 3rd Edition.
  4. Rich, T. C. G., Gibson, C. & Marsden, M. (1999) Re-establishment of the extinct native plant Filago gallica L. (Asteraceae), narrow-leaved cudweed, in Britain. Biological Conservation91: 1-8.
  5. Grey-Wilson, C. (1994) Eyewitness handbooks: Wild Flowers of Britain and Northwest Europe. Dorling Kindersley, London.
  6. Grigson, G. (1996) The Englishman's Flora. Helicon Publishing Ltd, Oxford.
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Image credit

Narrow-leaved cudweed  
Narrow-leaved cudweed

© Tim Rich

Tim Rich
arkive@wildscreen.org.uk

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