The principle threats to the mountain horned agama are habitat fragmentation and loss, rainwater acidification, pesticides and the effects of climate change. Only five percent of the country’s original wet zone tropical moist forest now survives, heavily fragmented, as a result of clearance for cinchona, coffee, tea and rubber plantations, for grazing livestock, by logging companies, illegal logging and removal of timber by peripheral villagers. With a rapidly growing human population and increasing demand for agricultural land, the destruction of Sri Lanka’s montane forests continues at an alarming rate. Surrounding vegetable cultivations and tea plantations often lack clearly demarcated boundaries, leading to significant encroachment into the forest. Isolation of lizard populations prevents both important genetic flow between subpopulations and means of escape from forest fires. Further more, there is intensive use of pesticides on vegetable cultivations and tea plantations in Sri Lanka, which could be having a serious polluting affect. Although the impact these chemicals are having on non-target species is not yet known, studies elsewhere indicate that they could potentially be devastating, with possibilities for bioaccumulation. There is also evidence in the tropical moist montane forests of Horton Plains of large-scale forest die-back, thought to be the result of acid rain, and these forests are considered particularly at risk from climate change, especially global warming (1).