The activity pattern of mongoose lemurs varies with the season, making it very different to that of most other primates (4). Individuals display cathemeral behaviour throughout the wet and dry seasons but, during the dry season, individuals tend to be more nocturnal, switching to more diurnal and/or crepuscular activity at the start of the wet season (4) (8). Fruit appears to dominate the diet throughout the year but flowers, particularly those from the kapok tree, are also eaten during the wet season, and these lemurs are extremely fond of nectar (6) (8). During the dry season, the mongoose lemur supplements its diet with mature and immature leaves (6) (8). The species has also been observed to feed on the occasional grub and beetle (6) (8).
On the mainland, mongoose lemurs live in small family groups made up of an adult male, adult female and one to three of their offspring (6), but congregate in larger groups in the Comoros (2). Home ranges are small and often overlap those of other groups. Although neighbouring groups rarely encounter one another, aggressive vocalisations, scent marking, and physical charges and threats are made when they do (8). Females are generally dominant to males, having preferential choice over food and mates (4). Mating is seasonal, with single offspring (rarely twins) being born from August to October, just before the rainy season, after a gestation period of around 126 - 128 days (2) (4) (5). The infant is weaned at approximately 135 days old, and young are forced to leave the group when they mature at around 2.5 to 3.5 years old (4).