The loss of forest on Mohéli has been severe; in 1995, only five percent of the island still had intact, dense, humid forest. Underplanting is one of the main problems affecting the remaining forest, a process in which food-producing plants, such as bananas, are planted within forests, where they alter the natural vegetation composition and eventually cause the degradation of the forest habitat. Aside from habitat loss, specific threats to the Moheli scops-owl are hunting, and invasive species, such as rats, which may eat its eggs and compete with it for food. At present, the highland region inhabited by the Moheli scops-owl is entirely unprotected. Estimates made in 2000 indicated that this owl’s total population amounted to just 400 individuals, therefore, even a small-scale, adverse event could result in its extinction (2).