The marsh fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia) has a highly patterned pale yellowish-brown upperside with orange-brown markings and brown spots (1), giving a stained glass appearance. The underside is light orange to brown with yellow spots. Females are generally larger than males (1). The caterpillars measure up to 2.7 centimetres in length and are black in colour with black spines along the back (2).
The flight period occurs between mid-May to mid-July. A single brood is produced a year, and the eggs are laid in large batches on the underside of leaves (2). The larvae group together and form protective webs on the foodplant that are obvious towards the end of August. Larvaehibernate whilst they are still small, and emerge the following spring to complete their development (3). Individual caterpillars disperse to pupate near the end of April, and adults emerge about two weeks later (2).
Distributed throughout Europe and into Asia. The species was once widespread throughout Britain but has suffered a huge decline and is now extinct in eastern Britain (3). A shocking 66 percent of the English populations known in 1990 had become extinct by 2000 (5).
Breeds in open grassy areas, such as damp tussocky grassland, calcareous grassland and heaths or mires. In all habitats an abundant supply of the main larval foodplant, devil's-bit scabious (Succisa pratensis) is essential (3).
The marsh fritillary is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention, Appendix II of the EC Habitats and Species Directive and fully protected in Great Britain under the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981 (3).
Habitat loss and inappropriate management are the major factors responsible for the decline of this species. Massive losses of unimproved grassland have occurred as a result of the intensification of agriculture that started after the Second World War. The species requires extensive grazing by cattle or ponies (5), sheep grazing tends to be unsuitable because sheep eat devil's bit scabious, and graze the sward too short (7). A further problem arises because the marsh fritillary exists as 'metapopulations', a number of discrete populations connected by dispersal over large landscape areas. The species therefore requires a network of suitable patches of habitat in an area (3).
A number of agri-environment schemes provide grants to farmers that manage their land in a way that suits the marsh fritillary. The landscape-scale conservation required by this species causes problems, not least because it is currently unknown how large the network of patches needs to be to support a viable population (3). Butterfly Conservation currently operates a Marsh Fritillary Project, which has produced guidelines for landowners on how to manage their land for this species (6). The marsh fritillary is a priority species under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan, and a number of key sites have been forwarded as candidate SACs (Special Areas of Conservation) (4).
These schemes allow the government to compensate farmers for using methods that benefit the environment. The two main initiatives in the UK are the Countryside Stewardship Scheme and Environmentally Sensitive Areas. Since October 2000 these have formed part of the England Rural Development Programme (EDRP), administered by DEFRA, the Department of Environment Food and Rural Affairs.
Containing free calcium carbonate, chalky.
A winter survival strategy characteristic of some mammals in which an animal's metabolic rate slows down and a state of deep sleep is attained. Whilst hibernating, animals survive on stored reserves of fat that they have accumulated in summer. In insects, the correct term for hibernation is 'diapause', a temporary pause in development and growth. Any stage of the lifecycle (eggs, larvae, pupae or adults) may enter diapause, which is typically associated with winter.
Stage in an animal's lifecycle after it hatches from the egg. Larvae are typically very different in appearance to adults; they are able to feed and move around but usually are unable to reproduce.
Of the stage in an animal’s lifecycle after it hatches from the egg. Larvae are typically very different in appearance to adults; they are able to feed and move around but usually are unable to reproduce.
A set of local populations within some larger area, where typically migration from one local population to at least some other patches is possible.
The process of forming a pupa, the stage in an insect's development, when huge changes occur that reorganise the larval form into the adult form. In butterflies the pupa is also called a chrysalis.
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