The main threats to the Marquesan imperial pigeon are illegal hunting, habitat loss and modification, predation and competition (3) (4). Habitat has been degraded throughout a long period of Polynesian occupancy through clearance for settlements, agriculture and forestry, fire regimes, introduced vegetation, and importation of mammalian herbivores including grazing feral stock, although cattle have now been eradicated and goats and pigs are decreasing in number (3) (4). It is feared that construction of new roads may lead not only to further habitat loss, but also to greater access and considerable disturbance to the last few remaining inaccessible refuges (3). Introduced predators such as cats and rats, particularly black rats (Rattus rattus), are also thought to pose a serious potential threat to eggs, nestlings, juveniles and adults (3) (4). In addition, black rats compete for fruit, reducing the available food supply for the Marquesan imperial-pigeon (4).