Marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus)

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Marbled murrelet in flight
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Marbled murrelet fact file

Marbled murrelet description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
ClassAves
OrderCharadriiformes
FamilyAlcidae
GenusBrachyramphus (1)

The marbled murrelet is a small, chubby seabird that has a very short neck (3). During the breeding season it has dark brown to blackish upperparts and a white belly and throat that are greatly mottled. During the winter the upperparts become grey, dark marks form on the sides of the breast and a white ring develops around the eye (2). Males and females are similar in appearance and size (3) (4). Juveniles are similar to the adult winter plumage, but with dusky mottling on the underparts (2). Vocalisations include a sharp ‘keer’ or low ‘kee(3).

Size
Length: 25 cm (2)
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Marbled murrelet biology

The marbled murrelet feeds on fish such as sandlace and herring but feeds on invertebrates during winter (2). They forage singly, in pairs or in feeding flocks of a mix of different species (3).

In California, breeding occurs from mid-March to early September, but the season is shorter further north (2). The nest is built on large branches in high elevation forests or on the ground on some islands. Incubation of the yellowish spotted eggs takes around 30 days and the young chicks fledge after a further 28 days (3).

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Marbled murrelet range

The marbled murrelet is found along the western coast of the USA and Canada in California, Washington, Oregon, British Columbia, Alaska, Prince William Sound, Kenai Peninsula, Lower Cook Inlet, Barren Islands, Afognak and Kodiak Islands, the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutians. Historically, the decline of this species has been most severe in Washington, Oregon and California; at present, however, the worst losses are occurring in British Columbia and Alaska (2).

See this species on Google Earth.

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Marbled murrelet habitat

The marbled murrelet is found near coastal waters, in bays and on mountains. It nests at high elevations in old growth forest, often at great distances from the coast (3). This species can be found up to 500 meters offshore (2).

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Marbled murrelet status

The marbled murrelet is classified as Endangered (EN) by the IUCN Red List (1).

IUCN Red List species status – Endangered

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Marbled murrelet threats

In many areas, the old-growth forests in which this murrelet breeds are subject to logging. Declines in areas where logging has not been a problem are thought to be due to a reduction in fish prey. Significant mortalities of this species have been caused by the birds becoming caught in gill-nets used in fishing, and by oil spills (2).

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Marbled murrelet conservation

Conservation measures taken to date include the protection of some areas supporting the marbled murrelet from future logging. Detailed research has been carried out on this murrelet, and a recovery plan has been produced. Furthermore, 179 km² of Afognak Island has been protected since 1998 by the Exxon Valdex Trustee Council. Proposed measures include research, particularly into the feeding ecology of this bird in order to fully understand the threats facing it. It is vital that suitable nesting habitat is protected and that fish stocks in known feeding areas are not severely damaged (2).

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
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Find out more

For further information on the marbled murrelet see:

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Authentication

This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:
arkive@wildscreen.org.uk

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References

  1. IUCN Red List 2007 (September, 2007)
    http://www.iucnredlist.org
  2. BirdLife International (September, 2007)
    http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=3309&m=0
  3. Animal Diversity Web (March, 2004)
    http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Brachyramphus_marmoratus.html
  4. Hull, C.L., Vanderkist, B.A., Lougheed, L.W., Kaiser, G.W. and Cooke, F. (2001) Morphometric variation in marbled murrelets, Brachyramphus marmoratus, in British Colombia. Northwestern Naturalist, 82(2): 41 - 51.
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Image credit

Marbled murrelet in flight  
Marbled murrelet in flight

© Glen Tepke

Glen Tepke
http://www.pbase.com/gtepke

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Listen to the Marbled murrelet

Marbled murrelet in flight
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Marbled murrelet recordings by Thomas G. Sander

© Cornell Lab of Ornithology

Macaulay Library
Cornell Lab of Ornithology
159 Sapsucker Woods Road
Ithaca
New York 14850
United States of America
Tel: +1 (607) 254-2404
Fax: +1 (607) 254-2439
Email: macaulaylibrary@cornell.edu
Website: www.birds.cornell.edu/MacaulayLibrary

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