Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris)

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Lowland tapir fact file

Lowland tapir description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderPerissodactyla
FamilyTapiridae
GenusTapirus (1)

One of the most distinguishing features of tapirs is their long, flexible proboscis, formed from the upper lip and nose (3), which is used to strip leaves and pluck fruits. (2). This bristly-coated tapir varies in colour from dark brown to greyish-brown, generally with a dark underside and legs, and lighter cheeks, throat and ear tips (3) (4). Newborn tapirs have a dark brown coat with white spots and stripes, which provide good camouflage (2). A prominent, erect mane sits on top of the crest and extends from the forehead to the shoulders (6). The crest running from the top of the head down the back of the neck is much more pronounced than in other tapir species, giving it a stockier appearance (7).

Also known as
Amazonian tapir, Brazilian tapir, South American tapir.
French
Tapir D'Amérique, Tapir Terrestre.
Spanish
Anta Brasileña, Danta, Danta Amazónica, Gran Bestia, Tapir Brasileño.
Size
Head-to-body length: 1.7 – 2 m (2)
Height at shoulder: 77 – 108 cm (3)
Weight
200 - 250 kg (4)
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Lowland tapir biology

During the day lowland tapirs remain hidden in thick cover, emerging only at night to browse on leaves of small plants, shrubs, lianas and saplings of trees, as well as tree bark, reeds and fruits (2) (4). Well worn tracks are followed throughout the home range to food and water sources (3). This tapir swims well and spends much of its time wallowing in water, which helps to get rid of skin parasites (3) in addition to providing protection from terrestrial predators such as jaguars and pumas (2). Tapirs will also regularly walk on river beds, searching for favoured aquatic plants (6).

These tapirs are primarily solitary animals, except during the mating season (6). Females give birth to a single calf after a gestation period of 13 months (7), which then remains in intermittent contact with its mother for around seven months, becoming increasingly independent (4) (6). Lowland tapirs have been known to live up to 35 years in captivity (3).

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Lowland tapir range

Broadly distributed across most of mainland South America east of the Andes, from northern Colombia extending to southern Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay, including throughout Venezuela and the Guyanas, eastern Peru, and northern and eastern Bolivia (4) (6).

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Lowland tapir habitat

Found in moist, lowland rainforests where water is present, but habitat association varies extensively (7) (3). Seasonal movements to higher elevations during the rainy season have been reported in some areas (7).

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Lowland tapir status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1), and listed on Appendix II of CITES (5).

IUCN Red List species status – Vulnerable

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Lowland tapir threats

Deforestation, hunting and competition with domestic livestock have all contributed to the decline and fragmentation of lowland tapir populations (1). Hunted for subsistence food and commercial sale, the large size of lowland tapir makes them a prized game mammal for native and rural people of South America (7). Hunting for tapir meat is increasing as the wild-meat industry develops, with tapir meat now frequently sold in city markets throughout South America. In Paraguay and Argentina tapirs are hunted for their hides, which are commonly used in Paraguay to make sandals that are sold to tourists as souvenirs. In Colombia the species is listed as endangered due to over-hunting (7).

Tapirs have also been taken from the wild to be kept as pets by Paraguayan and Peruvian aristocracy, where they are often poorly cared for and malnourished (7). Other threats include anti-drug chemicals used by authorities against cocaine growers, which can eventually end up in the food chain and poison tapirs (8). Road-kills are also common in reserves within close proximity to human settlement (7).

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Lowland tapir conservation

Although protected areas do exist within the range of the lowland tapir, they are sparse in certain countries (there is only one reserve in Guyana, established in the early 1990s), and those reserves that are close to human settlements often suffer from poaching. A priority of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group is to develop projects that will reduce hunting by establishing more reserves and promoting the sustainable harvest of wildlife by rural hunters. The second priority is to reduce habitat destruction through firmly managed agro-forestry projects. However, it is difficult to enforce hunting laws in remote areas when there is a direct economic benefit. Yet, if hunting continues at its current levels, local extinction of lowland tapir populations is almost certain (7).

To learn more about a Whitley Award-winning conservation project for this species, click here.
View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
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Find out more

For further information on the lowland tapir see:

  • IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group:
    www.tapirs.org/
  • Bodmer, R.E. and Brooks, D.M. (1997) Status and Action Plan of the Lowland Tapir (Tapirus terrestris). In: Brooks, D.M., Bodmer, R.E. and Matola, S. (Eds.) Tapirs - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group, Cambridge. Available at:
    www.tapirback.com/tapirgal/iucn-ssc/tsg/action97/cover.htm

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Authentication

Authenticated (09/02/2006) by Leo Salas, Editor of the Tapir Conservation Newsletter, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG).
http://www.tapirs.org/

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Glossary

Gestation
The state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth.
Parasites
Organisms that derive its food from, and lives in or on, another living organism at the host’s expense.
Proboscis
A tubular protrusion from the anterior of an animal (similar to the trunk of an elephant).
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References

  1. IUCN Red List (April, 2008)
    http://www.iucnredlist.org
  2. Burnie, D. (2001) Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World’s Wildlife. Dorling Kindersley, London.
  3. Animal Diversity Web (November, 2005)
    http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tapirus_indicus.html
  4. Salas, L. (2006) Pers. comm.
  5. CITES (November, 2005)
    http://www.cites.org
  6. Macdonald, D. (2001) The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  7. Bodmer, R.E. and Brooks, D.M. (1997) Status and Action Plan of the Lowland Tapir (Tapirus terrestris). In: Brooks, D.M., Bodmer, R.E. and Matola, S. (Eds) Tapirs - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group, Cambridge. Available at:
    http://www.tapirback.com/tapirgal/iucn-ssc/tsg/action97/cover.htm
  8. Morris, D. (2005) Face to face with big nose. BBC Wildlife Magazine, 23(3): 34 - 39. Available at:
    http://www.tapirs.org/Downloads/news-articles/WL_MAR05_Tapir_FINAL.pdf
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Lowland tapir swimming  
Lowland tapir swimming

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