Lichen (Teloschistes chrysopthalmus)

loading
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus
loading
Loading more images and videos...

Lichen fact file

Lichen description

KingdomFungi
PhylumAscomycota
ClassLecanoromycetes
OrderTeloschistales
FamilyTeloschistes
GenusTeloschistes (1)

This lichen is a 'fruticose' (3) or 'shrubby' species (4); it is composed of branching lobes that form small orange tufts, which are almost spherical in shape (5) and have spiny projections (2). The name of this genus, Teloschistes means 'split ends' and refers to the body of the thallus(2).

Size
Lobe width: up to 2 mm (2)
Tuft height: up to 1 cm (2)
Top

Lichen biology

Lichens are remarkable organisms; they consist of an alga and/ or a cyanobacteria and a fungus living together in a symbiotic association (5). A general rule is that the fungal component of a lichen is unable to live independently, but the alga may live without the fungal partner as a distinct species (5). Many lichens are known to be very sensitive to environmental pollution, and they have been used as 'indicators' of pollution (4).

This species produces fruiting bodies called 'apothecia' which occur on short stalks. These contain a bag-like structure called an 'ascus', which contains spores. Because the fruiting bodies are produced only by the fungal partner of the lichen, after the spore has dispersed it must acquire cells of the correct alga or it will be unable to survive (2).

Top

Lichen range

At present, this lichen is currently not known from UK, but it is widely thought that it could reappear (6). The most recent records are from Cornwall in 1997 and 1998, and Devon in 1966 (3), but it has since disappeared from both of these areas (6). It is believed to be extinct in Northern Ireland, but is still recorded in south-western Ireland (5). Elsewhere, it is widespread in warm areas of both hemispheres (5).

Top

Lichen habitat

Found on well-lit twigs on shrubs and small trees, and prefers sheltered and sunny areas (3). In the UK, known habitats include old orchards and hedgerows, but it has also been seen growing on fence posts and other timber structures near the coast (3).

Top

Lichen status

Classified as Critically Endangered in Great Britain, Extinct in Northern Ireland, and is classified as Threatened by the preliminary European Red List for macrolichens. General protection is afforded by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (3).

Top

Lichen threats

The decline in the range of this species is thought to be the result of air pollution, the loss of old orchards and hedgerows, and the use of fertilisers (3). The hawthorn bush on which the species lived on at the last known Devon site was removed in order to widen a footpath at the site (3). A further potential threat is botanical collecting (3).

Top

Lichen conservation

As a UK Biodiversity Action Plan Priority Species, Teloschistes chrysophthalmus has a Species Action Plan, which guides conservation efforts. Plantlife, the wild plant conservation charity is the 'lead partner' for this lichen, and has included the species in its 'Back from the Brink' campaign. The Action Plan aims to maintain and enhance any re-discovered populations, and if possible, to reinstate the species at two former sites by the year 2005 (3).

The UK Biodiversity Action Plan for this species is available at UK BAP.
Top

Find out more

For more on British lichens see: Dobson, F. (2000) Lichens: an illustrated guide to the British species. The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd., Slough.

Top

Authentication

Information authenticated by Plantlife, the wild plant conservation charity:
http://www.plantlife.org.uk

Top

Glossary

Alga
A collection of taxonomically unrelated groups that share some common features but are grouped together for historical reasons and for convenience. They are of simple construction, and are mainly photoautotrophic, obtaining all their energy from light and carbon dioxide, and possess the photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll A. They range in complexity from microscopic single cells to very complex plant-like forms, such as kelps. Algal groups include blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), red algae (rhodophyta), green algae (chlorophyta), brown algae and diatoms (chromista) as well as euglenophyta.
Cyanobacteria
A group of bacteria that are able to photosynthesise and contain the pigment chlorophyll. They used to be known as ‘blue-green algae’. They are thought to have been the first organisms to produce oxygen; fossil cyanobacteria have been found in 3000 million year old rocks. As they are responsible for the oxygen in the atmosphere they have played an essential role in influencing the course of evolution on this planet.
Fungus
Fungi are one of the taxonomic kingdoms, separate from plants and animals. They obtain nutrients by absorbing organic compounds from the surrounding environment.
Spores
Microscopic particles involved in both dispersal and reproduction. They comprise a single or group of unspecialised cells and do not contain an embryo, as do seeds.
Symbiotic
Relationship in which two organisms form a close association, the term is now usually used only for associations that benefit both organisms (a mutualism).
Thallus
Type of simple plant body that does not have stems, leaves and roots.
Top

References

  1. National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (May 2002) http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nbn/
  2. Dobson, F. (2000) Lichens: an illustrated guide to the British species. The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd., Slough.
  3. UK BAP (May 2002): http://www.ukbap.org.uk
  4. Allaby, M. (1998) Oxford Dictionary of Plant Sciences. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  5. Church, J. M., Coppins, B. J., Gilbert, O. L., James, P. W. & Stewart, N. F. (1996) Red Data Book of Britain and Ireland: lichens. Volume 1: Britain. The Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
  6. Duckworth, J. (2002) Pers. comm.
X
Close

Image credit

Teloschistes chrysophthalmus  
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus

© Frank Dobson

Frank Dobson
57 Acacia Grove
New Malden
Surrey
KT3 3BU
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 208 949 2416
Fax: +44 (0) 208 949 2416

X
Close

Link to this photo

ARKive species - Lichen (Teloschistes chrysopthalmus) Embed this ARKive thumbnail link ("portlet") by copying and pasting the code below.

Terms of Use - The displayed portlet may be used as a link from your website to ARKive's online content for private, scientific, conservation or educational purposes only. It may NOT be used within Apps.

Read more about

X
Close

MyARKive

MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite ARKive images and videos and share them with friends.

Play the Team WILD game:

Team WILD, an elite squadron of science superheroes, needs your help! Your mission: protect and conserve the planet’s species and habitats from destruction.

Conservation in Action

Which species are on the road to recovery? Find out now »

Help us share the wonders of the natural world. Donate today!

Blog