The main threat to local lesser brown horseshoe bat populations is the disturbance of cave roosts, caused by mining activities or the collection of guano and bird nests. A wider threat, relevant to most bat species in Southeast Asia, is from habitat loss. The rapid increase in land devoted to commodity agriculture (such as cocoa, coffee, oil palm, rice and rubber) has resulted in extensive loss of forest in the last 20 years. In recent years, one of the largest agricultural drivers of deforestation in Malaysia, Sumatra and Thailand has been oil palm. Together, Malaysia and Indonesia export 88 percent of the world’s palm oil, for use in products such as margarine, lipstick and detergent. In addition, despite the contribution of many bats in the control of insect crop pests, persecution of bats is also a threat (6) (7).