In the past, the Lesser Antillean iguana has been brought to near or total local extinction by clearance of suitable habitat for agriculture on St. Kitts, Nevis, Basse Terre and St. Eustatius. Now, tourism has taken over from agriculture as their chief industry and coastal development has further decimated iguana habitats, particularly affecting communal nest sites (2).
Feral predators continue to reduce Lesser Antillean iguana populations. On all islands on which the Indian mongoose occurs, this iguana is extinct or highly endangered. Cats and dogs all contribute to the decline, as do goats and sheep which over-browse, causing a change in plant species composition and habitat structure (2).
Hunting of the Lesser Antillean iguana was prevalent for several decades, and although it is now illegal, it continues and is common in some areas. Accidental road kills are also a problem, principally because the majority of deaths are of migrating pregnant females and dispersing hatchlings (2).
A further threat is the confirmed hybridisation between Lesser Antillean iguanas and common iguanas (Iguana iguana). With no obvious environmental changes in Les Iles des Saintes, the disappearance of the Lesser Antillean iguana has been attributed entirely to displacement and hybridisation with the common iguana (2).