Lava cactus (Brachycereus nesioticus)

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Lava cactus fact file

Lava cactus description

KingdomPlantae
PhylumTracheophyta
ClassMagnoliopsida
OrderCaryophyllales
FamilyCactaceae
GenusBrachycereus (1)

The smallest of the cacti species that inhabit the Galápagos (2), the lava cactus consists of a number of short, cylindrical stems that grow in dense clusters, covering up to two metres (4). Suitably, the scientific name of this cactus, Brachycereus, arises from the Greek word for short and the Latin word for candle, referring to its unmistakable appearance (5). Each stem is covered with numerous sharp spines, which are yellow on the young parts of the plant, turning dark grey or black with age (6). Due to the colour of the spines, the age of the stems are easily identified, with the new parts of the plant appearing paler and more yellow than the older parts (6). The flowers of the lava cactus are creamy white and measure up to 5.5 centimetres across (2) (5), while the fruits are small, fleshy, red to reddish-brown berries covered with yellow spines, each containing numerous blackish-brown seeds (5).

Synonyms
Cereus nesioticus.
French
Lave cactus.
Spanish
Cactus de Lava.
Size
Height: up to 60 cm (2)
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Lava cactus biology

Despite the scientific interest that the Galápagos Islands have received ever since Darwin visited in 1835, and the numerous observations of the lava cactus, the biology of this plant remains poorly known (4).

Like all cacti, this succulent plant is capable of storing moisture in its stems when water is available, enabling it to survive periods of drought (6), and the spines, which are actually the leaves of the cactus, provide defense against any plant-eating animals (2). The lava cactus flowers very briefly (2), with its cream-coloured blooms opening just before dawn, and usually shrivelling by seven or eight o’clock in the morning (6).

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Lava cactus range

Found only in the volcanic archipelago of the Galápagos, on the islands of Bartolomé, Fernandina, Genovesa, Isabela, Pinta and San Salvador (4).

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Lava cactus habitat

As its name suggest, the lava cactus occurs exclusively on barren lava fields (2), lying at sea level (4). Not only is it one of the few plants that survive in this extremely dry, challenging habitat (4), it is often one of the first plants to colonise a fresh lava flow (2).

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Lava cactus status

The lava cactus is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1) and listed on Appendix II of CITES (3).

IUCN Red List species status – Least Concern

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Lava cactus threats

While the Galápagos are a protected area, and are considered one of the most unspoiled areas remaining on the planet (7), the fauna and flora of these islands still face major threats, such as introduced species, pressure from increasing tourist numbers, and a decline in the maintenance of protective laws (7). However, the lava cactus is not currently known to be facing any specific threats (1).

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Lava cactus conservation

The unique biodiversity of the Galápagos has been recognized and these islands are well protected as a result, being classified as a National Park and a Natural World Heritage Site (7). More specifically for the lava cactus, the government of Ecuador prohibits the collection of any plant in the Galápagos (4).

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Find out more

For further information on conservation in the Galápagos see:

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Authentication

This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:
arkive@wildscreen.org.uk

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References

  1. IUCN Red List (August, 2013)
    http://www.iucnredlist.org
  2. Fitter, J., Fitter, D. and Hosking, D. (2000) Wildlife of Galápagos. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, London.
  3. CITES (April, 2008)
    http://www.cites.org
  4. Anderson, E.F. (2001) The Cactus Family. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
  5. McMullen, C.K. and Prance, G. (1999) Flowering Plants of the Galápagos. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London.
  6. Jackson, M.H. (1993) Galápagos: A Natural History. University of Calgary Press, Alberta, Canada.
  7. UNEP-WCMC: Galápagos National Park and Marine Reserve (July, 2008)
    http://www.unep-wcmc.org/medialibrary/2011/06/28/62f3bab1/Galapagos%20Islands.pdf
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Image credit

Lava cactus group  
Lava cactus group

© Pete Oxford / naturepl.com

Nature Picture Library
5a Great George Street
Bristol
BS1 5RR
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 117 911 4675
Fax: +44 (0) 117 911 4699
info@naturepl.com
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