Large heath (Coenonympha tullia)

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Large heath
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Large heath fact file

Large heath description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumArthropoda
ClassInsecta
OrderLepidoptera
FamilyNymphalidae
GenusCoenonympha (1)

Adult large heath butterflies always have their wings closed when at rest; males are smoky orange-brown in colour, and females are paler (1). Both sexes have pale brown undersides featuring a creamy white band and a number of eyespots (1). The green caterpillar is around 2.5 centimetres in length and has two white bands along its sides (3).

Size
Wingspan: 3 - 4 cm (1)
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Large heath biology

The flight period occurs between mid-June and early August. The large heath is single-brooded; eggs are laid singly at the base of the foodplant on dead stems. The larvae hibernate when still small, and emerge in March to complete their development (2). Pupae develop towards the end of April or early May and are attached to stems. Adults emerge around a month later (3).

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Large heath range

Found in Europe, Asia, Canada and western USA, the large heath has undergone serious declines throughout much of Europe. In Britain, it is largely restricted to Scotland and the far north of England with a few small populations persisting in central and eastern England (2) and north Wales (4).

You can view distribution information for this species at the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
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Large heath habitat

Inhabits wet, boggy habitats such as lowland raised bogs, upland blanket bogs and damp acidic moorland where the main foodplant, hare's tail cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum) occurs (2). Abundant sources of the most important adult nectar source, cross-leaved heath (Erica tetralix) are also essential (2).

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Large heath status

Listed on Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, with respect to sale only (2).

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Large heath threats

Huge losses of suitable habitat have occurred throughout Europe as a result of large-scale drainage works, commercial forestry plantations and peat extraction. Inappropriate habitat management, such as overgrazing, may be degrading once suitable habitat and causing losses (2).

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Large heath conservation

Lowland raised bogs and blanket bogs are listed under the EC Habitats Directive, and peatland habitats have been the focus of a number of conservation campaigns. Despite this, peat is still extracted for use in gardens and in horticulture. As large populations of species are more resistant to local extinctions, it is important that large areas of remaining habitats must be conserved and suitable management practices encouraged. Homeowners can help by choosing to use peat-free alternatives in their gardens (2).

There may be further information about this species available via the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
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Find out more

For more information on the large heath see:

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Authentication

Information authenticated by Butterfly Conservation:

http://www.butterfly-conservation.org/

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Glossary

Hibernate
A winter survival strategy characteristic of some mammals in which an animal's metabolic rate slows down and a state of deep sleep is attained. Whilst hibernating, animals survive on stored reserves of fat that they have accumulated in summer. In insects, the correct term for hibernation is 'diapause', a temporary pause in development and growth. Any stage of the lifecycle (eggs, larvae, pupae or adults) may enter diapause, which is typically associated with winter.
Larvae
Stage in an animal's lifecycle after it hatches from the egg. Larvae are typically very different in appearance to adults; they are able to feed and move around but usually are unable to reproduce.
Pupae
Stage in an insect's development when huge changes occur, which reorganise the larval form into the adult form. In butterflies the pupa is also called a chrysalis.
Single-brooded
Also known as ‘univoltine’. Referring to an organism which has just one brood each year.
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References

  1. Still, J. (1996) Collins Wild Guide: Butterflies and moths of Britain and Europe. HarperCollins Publishers, London.
  2. Asher, J., Warren, M., Fox, R., Harding, P., Jeffcoate, G. and and Jeffcoate, S. (2001) The Millennium Atlas of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  3. Carter, D.J. and Hargreaves, B. (1986) A Field Guide to Caterpillars of Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Collins, London.
  4. Bourn, N.A.D. and Warren, M.S. (1997) Species Action Plan: Large Heath Coenonympha tullia. Butterfly Conservation, Wareham. Available at:
    http://www.butterfly-conservation.org/downloads.asp?PageId=73
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Large heath  
Large heath

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