Large-eared horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus philippinensis)

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Large-eared horseshoe bat on a rock
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Large-eared horseshoe bat fact file

Large-eared horseshoe bat description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderChiroptera
FamilyRhinolophidae
GenusRhinolophus (1)

The large-eared horseshoe bat can be identified by its long, fine, greyish-brown hair which is often streaked with white hairs on the upperparts, and is paler in colour on the underside (3). Two forms of the large-eared horseshoe bat are currently recognised: a large form and a smaller form. The larger form, often referred to as the greater large-eared horseshoe bat, has particularly enormous ears that are much larger than the bat’s head, and the skin of the ears and face is often tinged with yellow or orange. The smaller form, or lesser large-eared horseshoe bat, lacks any yellowish tinge on the face and its fur is often more grey in colour (2). As is characteristic of the horseshoe bats, the large-eared horseshoe bat has a flight pattern similar to that of a butterfly and an ability to hover, which it often does when catching prey on tree branches (4).

Size
Head-body length: 6.0 – 6.5 cm (2)
Ear length: 2.5 – 3.5 cm (2)
Weight
10 - 16.2 g (3)
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Large-eared horseshoe bat biology

The diet of the large-eared horseshoe bat includes moths and some insects which (4), like most horseshoe bats, it forages for close to the ground (7). Horseshoe bats tend to hunt at night, later than other bats, using echolocation to detect the fluttering of the prey’s wings (8).

Little is known about the reproductive habits of the large-eared horseshoe bat; however, it is considered to be similar to that of most horseshoe bats. On average one offspring is produced per year after a gestation period of seven weeks, and sexual maturity is typically reached at two years of age (8). In horseshoe bat species it has been noted that the young tend to roost together whilst the adults are solitary; it is thought that this is to compensate for the juveniles’ lack of fat and thus warmth (7). The large-eared horseshoe bat is thought to roost in colonies of one to six individuals (2), and has also been observed roosting with the eastern horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus megaphyllus) (4).

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Large-eared horseshoe bat range

The large-eared horseshoe bat has a range that extends from north-east Australia to south-east Asia (5)

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Large-eared horseshoe bat habitat

The primary habitat of the large-eared horseshoe bat is rainforests (6). During the day, when roosting, it can be found hanging from the ceiling of caves and old mines - an unusual behaviour as most other horseshoe bats tend to hang from the walls (4).

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Large-eared horseshoe bat status

Classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1).

IUCN Red List species status – Least Concern

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Large-eared horseshoe bat threats

The main threat to the large-eared horseshoe bat is the destruction and disturbance of caves in which it roosts. Throughout the bat’s native land, many of its roosting caves are opened to the public for exploration or are being reopened for mining. Both of these disturbances mean that it is not always possible for the bats to roost there during the day. The hunting grounds of the large-eared horseshoe bat are also being cleared of vegetation and cover to make way for agricultural developments, resulting in a lack of suitable hunting grounds for the bats and, ultimately, a lack of prey. Despite its global classification as a species of Least Concern, in Australia this species is classified as Endangered (3)

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Large-eared horseshoe bat conservation

Between 2001 and 2005, a recovery plan was implemented in Australia for cave-dwelling bats which involved the large-eared horseshoe bat as well as two other species. The main aim was to ensure suitable locations were protected to allow the bats to roost and breed undisturbed. Further studies into the ecological needs of these species were also undertaken, so as to help inform future conservation plans (2). The large-eared horseshoe bat is found in protected areas in both the Philippines and Australia (1), such as the Wet Tropics World Heritage area (9), which will hopefully help protect some populations of this species.

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
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Find out more

To find out about the conservation of bats around the world see:

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Authentication

This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:
arkive@wildscreen.org.uk

This species information was authored as part of the ARKive and Universities Scheme.
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Glossary

Echolocation
Detecting objects by reflected sound. Used by bats and odontocete cetaceans (toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises) for orientation and to detect and locate prey.
Gestation
The state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth.
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References

  1. IUCN Red List (March, 2010)
    http://www.iucnredlist.org
  2. Thomson, B., Pavey, C. and Reardon, T. (2007) National Recovery Plan for Cave-dwelling Bats, Rhinolophus philippinensis, Hipposideros semoni and Taphozous troughtoni 2001-2005. Environment Australia, Canberra.
  3. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. (2010) Rhinolophus philippinensis (large form).In: Species Profile and Threats Database. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Available from:
    http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat.
  4. Australian Museum (November, 2009)
    http://australianmuseum.net.au/Large-eared-Horseshoe-Bat
  5. Kingston, T. and Rossiter, S.J. (2004). Harmonic-hopping in Wallacea's bats. Nature, 429: 654-657.
  6. Churchill, S.K. (2009) Australian Bats. Allen and Unwin, Sydney.
  7. Wimsatt, W.A. (1970) Biology of Bats. Volume 1. Academic Press, New York and London.
  8. Nowak, R.M. (1994) Walker’s Bats of the World. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
  9. Wet Tropics Management Authority (November, 2009)
    http://www.wettropics.gov.au
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Image credit

Large-eared horseshoe bat on a rock  
Large-eared horseshoe bat on a rock

© Ch'ien C. Lee / www.wildborneo.com.my

Chien Lee
Peti Surat 2507
93750 Kuching
Sarawak
Malaysia
mail@wildborneo.com.my
http://www.wildborneo.com.my

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