Friday 24 May
Karoo cycad (Encephalartos lehmannii)
What’s the World’s Favourite Species?Find out here.
Karoo cycad fact file
- Find out more
- Print factsheet
Karoo cycad description
The Karoo cycad is one of around 300 living representatives of a plant group, the cycads, which flourished over 150 million years ago alongside the dinosaurs (4) (5). This squat, low-growing species commonly forms clumps with two or more stems branching from the same base (2) (6) (7). Although woody in appearance, the stems are mostly comprised of soft, pithy storage tissue protected by a solid layer of old leaf bases (6) (8). Topping each stem is a crown of long leaves, each comprised of numerous well-spaced, bluish-green or silver leaflets on either side of a central stem (6) (8). The reproductive organs of cycads take the form of cones, similar in appearance to those of a conifer (5), but in the Karoo cycad each stem produces just a singe cone (2). As with all cycads, the male and female cones of this species, both of which are bluish-green (7), are borne on separate plants (8).Top
Karoo cycad biology
Cycads are long-lived, slow growing plants that always occur as individual male or female plants (6) (8). There is no way of determining the sex of a cycad until it begins to produce its first cone (8). For a long time cycads were thought, like cone-producing conifers, to be entirely wind pollinated (9). However, studies now suggest that the vast majority, if not all cycads, are actually pollinated by insects or more specifically weevils (6) (8) (9). To attract pollinators, male and female cones produce powerful odours, usually in the early morning or evening (8). Travelling between the sexes, the weevils pollinate the plants by inadvertently transferring pollen from the male cones to the receptive ovules of the female cones (8) (10).
The seeds produced by cycads are large and have a fleshy outer coat, but are relatively short-lived and vulnerable to desiccation. The fleshy outer layer is desirable to a range of animals such as birds, rodents and bats, depending on the species of cycad and region it occupies. However, with any luck the unpalatable seed is discarded some distance away from the parent plant in a hospitable environment in which to germinate (6).Top
Karoo cycad rangeTop
Karoo cycad habitat
Described as the hardiest and most drought resistant of the South African cycad species, the Karoo cycad occurs in semi-arid, low succulent shrubland, subject to very hot summers and cold winters (2) (6) (7). Although rainfall is concentrated during the summer months, it is erratic and the region is prone to prolonged droughts (2) (7).Top
Karoo cycad statusTop
Karoo cycad threats
While the Karoo cycad was once fairly abundant throughout its range, its numbers have declined dramatically as a result of the growing popularity of this species amongst collectors (7) (8). With the majority of plants in areas close to roads and towns removed, most Karoo cycads are now only found on higher ground in relatively inaccessible terrain (7). Other negative pressures on this species include domestic goats, which damage the leafy crowns, and porcupines, which eat the stem bases in times of drought. Furthermore, there is a weevil species that parasitizes the cones of female Karoo cycads, severely affecting its rate of regeneration (8).Top
Karoo cycad conservation
Although the Karoo cycad is listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International in Endangered Species (CITES), which permits trade in this species only under exceptional circumstances, it is not found in any nature reserves (2) (3) (8). If this does not change and the remaining viable populations continue to be illegally exploited by collectors, the Karoo cycad faces the very real threat of extinction in the wild (3).Top
Find out more
For further information on the Karoo cycad and conservation of cycads in South Africa see:
- The Cycad Society of South Africa:
- South African National Biodiversity Institute:
AuthenticationThis information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact: firstname.lastname@example.orgTop
- A species or taxonomic group that is only found in one particular country or geographic area.
- The beginning of growth, usually following a period of dormancy and in response to favourable conditions. For example, the sprouting of a seedling from a seed.
- A structure within the female reproductive organs of plants that contains eggs and when fertilized by pollen, develops into seeds
- Parasitism is an interaction between species in which one organism derives its food from, and lives in or on, another living organism at the host’s expense.
- To transfer pollen grains from the stamen (male part of a flower) to the stigma (female part of a flower) of a flowering plant. This usually leads to fertilisation, the development of seeds and, eventually, a new plant.
- Animals that in the act of visiting a plant’s flowers transfer pollen grains from the stamen (male part of a flower) to the stigma (female part of a flower) of a flowering plant. This usually leads to fertilisation, the development of seeds and, eventually, a new plant
- IUCN Red List (April, 2008)
- The Cycad Society of South Africa (November, 2008)
- CITES (November, 2008)
- Donaldson, J.S. (2003) Cycads, status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC-Cycad Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
- Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (November, 2008)
- The Cycad Pages (November, 2008)
- PlantZAfrica (November, 2008)
- Whitelock, L.M. (2002) The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
- Jolivet, P. (2005) Cycads and beetles: recent views on pollination. The Cycad Newsletter, 28: 3 - 7.
- Donaldson, J.S. (1997) Is there a floral parasite mutualism in cycad pollination? The pollination biology of Encephalartos villosus (Zamiaceae). American Journal of Botany, 84: 1398 - 1406.
More »Related species
Play the Team WILD game
MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite ARKive images and videos and share them with friends.
Terms and Conditions of Use of Materials
Copyright in this website and materials contained on this website (Material) belongs to Wildscreen or its licensors.
Visitors to this website (End Users) are entitled to:
- view the contents of, and Material on, the website;
- download and retain copies of the Material on their personal systems in digital form in low resolution for their own personal use;
- teachers, lecturers and students may incorporate the Material in their educational material (including, but not limited to, their lesson plans, presentations, worksheets and projects) in hard copy and digital format for use within a registered educational establishment, provided that the integrity of the Material is maintained and that copyright ownership and authorship is appropriately acknowledged by the End User.
End Users shall not copy or otherwise extract, alter or manipulate Material other than as permitted in these Terms and Conditions of Use of Materials.
Additional use of flagged material
Green flagged material
Certain Material on this website (Licence 4 Material) displays a green flag next to the Material and is available for not-for-profit conservation or educational use. This material may be used by End Users, who are individuals or organisations that are in our opinion not-for-profit, for their not-for-profit conservation or not-for-profit educational purposes. Low resolution, watermarked images may be copied from this website by such End Users for such purposes. If you require high resolution or non-watermarked versions of the Material, please contact Wildscreen with details of your proposed use.
Creative commons material
Certain Material on this website has been licensed to Wildscreen under a Creative Commons Licence. These images are clearly marked with the Creative Commons buttons and may be used by End Users only in the way allowed by the specific Creative Commons Licence under which they have been submitted. Please see http://creativecommons.org for details.
Any other use
Please contact the copyright owners directly (copyright and contact details are shown for each media item) to negotiate terms and conditions for any use of Material other than those expressly permitted above. Please note that many of the contributors to ARKive are commercial operators and may request a fee for such use.
Save as permitted above, no person or organisation is permitted to incorporate any copyright material from this website into any other work or publication in any format (this includes but is not limited to: websites, Apps, CDs, DVDs, intranets, extranets, signage, digital communications or on printed materials for external or other distribution). Use of the Material for promotional, administrative or for-profit purposes is not permitted.