Being largely nocturnal, the Jamaican hutia forages at night on a herbivorous diet of fruit, shoots, bark and exposed roots, amongst other general foliage (2).
This species usually forms family groups of between two and six individuals, although up to ten individuals have been recorded in a single group. The Jamaican hutia is thought to maintain contact with other group members using various vocalisations, during both the day and night (2).
Little is known about the reproductive biology of the Jamaican hutia in the wild, but studies on captive animals suggests it does not have a specific mating season and that it produces two litters every year. The average gestation period is 123 days, which is particularly long for rodents of its size, and each litter usually contains one or two young. The young Jamaican hutia is born well-developed, and just 30 hours after birth it starts eating solid food and is able to move around. In females, sexual maturity occurs after about a year, but males mature slightly later (2).