International trade in the Hispaniolan ground iguana is controlled by its listing under Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) (3). Compliance with CITES trade regulations is largely effective, although occasional smuggling of animals across the Haitian border does still occur. Enforcement of national protective legislation in the Dominican Republic has improved in the last few years, but fails to go far enough, since clearing of natural habitat for development is neither being prevented nor regulated and illegal hunting for food and the local pet market continues (1). However, the Isla Cabritos range, which used to be intensively exploited for hardwood cutting, charcoal, and livestock grazing, has undergone extensive natural regeneration in the last 15 years, and improved protective management since 1992 has meant present conditions there are stable (4). Indianapolis Zoo has had a small but successful captive breeding programme, although survivorship of young has been low (1), and there are plans to re-establish new breeding colonies at both the Parque Zoologico Nacional (ZooDom) in the Dominican Republic and the Indianapolis Zoo (4). The establishment of local educational awareness campaigns to try to reduce illegal hunting, the strengthening and enforcing of protective legislation, and the implementation of research, monitoring and recovery programmes will be essential in guiding effective conservation efforts in the future (2).