One of the most significant threats to Hine’s emerald is habitat loss (1) (2) (4). As a species with very specific habitat requirements, it is extremely vulnerable to habitat degradation, and many previously suitable areas no longer have the correct conditions to support populations of Hine’s emeralds (1). Many wetlands throughout the range of this species have been drained to allow the development of new commercial and residential areas (2) (4), as well as to create landfills, quarries, roads and railways (2). As this species relies on aquatic habitats to breed, water drainage can prevent any reproduction from occurring, leading to a drastic reduction in population size (4). Sections of habitat have also been fragmented, which can lead to genetic problems such as inbreeding depression (2).
Chemical contamination is also a major threat to Hine’s emerald and its habitat (2) (4). Good water quality is vital for the aquatic larval period of this species, and the presence of pesticides and other pollutants in the habitat can reduce the water quality and can have negative effects on organisms living in the area (4).
To a lesser extent, Hine’s emerald is also affected by the negative effects of invasive species, such as garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus) (3).