As suggested by its name, the Henderson fruit-dove is a frugivore and feeds on 19 species of fruit, which is nearly all the suitable fruit growing on Henderson island. It eats the fruit of Procis pedunculata, a member of the nettle family, most frequently (5). By eating the fruits of Henderson Island, this dove plays an important role in seed dispersal on the island (6).
The Henderson fruit-dove appears to be a territorial bird, defending an area containing fruit plants that they can eat when the fruit becomes seasonally available. There is almost no freshwater on Henderson Island, making life very difficult for the animals which live there, but the fruit-dove overcomes this problem by eating fruit with a very high water content (1).
There is not much information on the breeding behaviour of the Henderson fruit-dove, but it is thought that the breeding season is at the beginning of the year and that the female lays a single egg (1).