Sunday 19 May
Great willowherb (Epilobium hirsutum)
Great willowherb fact file
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Great willowherb description
Great willowherb is a tall, common herb. It has a densely hairy stem (2) bearing long, narrow leaves that taper to a point and are similar in appearance to those of willows, hence the name ‘willowherb’ (4). The leaves and stems are very woolly, referred to by the specific Latin name ‘hirsutum', which means hairy. The flowers have a rosy flush and the stigmas are creamy white. This colouration is thought to have led to the alternative name of ‘codlins-and-cream’; codlins were cooking apples, and were often boiled in milk and eaten with cream (4). The seeds are contained within a downy, narrow seed capsule which measures 5-8 cm in length (2).
- Also known as
- codlins-and-cream, great hairy willowherb. Top
- Plants that live for at least three seasons; after an initial period they produce flowers once a year.
- Rhizomes are thickened, branching, creeping storage stems. Although most rhizomes grow laterally just along or slightly below the soil's surface, some grow several inches deep. Roots grow from the underside of the rhizome, and during the growing season new growth sprouts from buds along the top. A familiar rhizome is the ginger used in cooking.
- The receptive part of the female reproductive organ of a flower. Pollen germinates on the stigma. (See http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/ksheets/pdfs/flower.pdf for a fact sheet on flower structure).
National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (September 2003):
- Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G., and Moore, D.M. (1987) Flora of the British Isles 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. and Dines, T.D. (2002) New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- Grigson, G. (1996) The Englishman’s Flora. Helicon Publishing, Ltd., Oxford.
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Great willowherb biology
Great willowherb is a perennial herb that spreads by seed or by means of branching white subterranean rhizomes(3) that are produced during summer (2) and can result in large, dense clumps of this plant (3). The flowers are visited by hoverflies and bees (2).Top
Great willowherb range
This plant is common throughout most of Britain, with the exception of the far north-west (2). The species has increased in numbers in Wales, south west Scotland and north England (3). Great willowherb is found in mainland Europe as far north as southern Sweden. It also occurs in temperate parts of Asia, and north, east and south Africa. It has been introduced to North America (2).Top
Great willowherb habitat
Although this species can withstand dry habitats, it is typically found in damp, open habitats such as pond or stream banks, marshes, ditches, damp woodlands and waste ground (3).Top
Great willowherb status
Common and widespread: not threatened (3).Top
Great willowherb threats
This species is not threatened.Top
Great willowherb conservation
Conservation action is not required for this very common species.Top
Find out more
For more on British native plants and for details of how to get involved in plant conservation visit the website of Plantlife, the wild plant charity:
This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:
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